Number 18

                               A Brief History Of
                             MARINE CORPS AVIATION


                        HISTORICAL BRANCH, G-3 DIVISION
                        HEADQUARTERS, U. S. MARINE CORPS
                               WASHINGTON, D. C.

                                  Revised 1962

                             DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
                              WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

                      REVIEWED AND APPROVED  13 July 1962


                               R. E. CUSHMAN, JR.
                       Major General, U. S. Marine Corps
                         Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3


                               TABLE OF CONTENTS 

                                                           Original    On-Line
                                                             Page       Page

A Brief History of Marine Corps Aviatiion                       1           6

Appendix 1 Directors of Marine Corps Aviation                  13          19
Appendix 2 Aircraft Letter and Number System                   14          20
           of Identification
Appendix 3 Suggestions for Further Reading                     16          21



                           Mrs. Elizabeth L. Tierney

     Marine Corps aviation had its inception on 22 May 1912, when Lieutenant 
Alfred A. Cunningham reported to the Naval Aviation Camp, Annapolis, Maryland.  
The following July, he was ordered from Annapolis to the Burgess Company plant 
at Marblehead, Massachusetts, where actual flight training was conducted.  He 
soloed on 1 August 1912, after 2 hours and 40 minutes of instructions.  Thus 
Lieutenant Cunningham, whose Naval Aviator Number was 5, became Marine Aviator 
Number 1.

     As early as 1913, he was made a member of the Chambers Board, composed of 
six naval officers and himself and convened to draw up "a comprehensive plan 
for the organization of a naval aeronautical service," assuring the Marines of 
a representative in naval aviation almost from the beginning.

     Naval aviation's early development owed much to its Marine members who 
participated in some of the earliest experiments--bombing from a naval plane 
(Bernard L. Smith); taking off by catapult from a battleship underway (Alfred 
A. Cunningham); and looping a seaplane (Francis T. Evans).

     When the United States entered the first World War on 6 April 1917, 
Marine aviation consisted of only 6 Marine officers designated naval aviators, 
1 warrant officer, and 45 enlisted men.  Sixth months later, the First Marine 
Aeronautic Company was organized.  It was fated to make history by becoming 
the first American flying unit of any service to go overseas


completely trained and equipped.  On 9 January 1918, the company of 12 
officers and 133 enlisted men, was transferred to Ponta Delgada, on the island 
of Sao Miguel, for duty.  There it flew seaplanes on antisubmarine patrol in 
the Azores area for the remainder of the war.

     Once back in the States, Marine aviation mushroomed.  After utilizing 
Navy fields at Mineola, New York, Cape May, New Jersey, Lake Charles, 
Louisiana, and Coconut Grove, Florida, the Marines finally got their own 
field.  In April 1918, the Curtiss Flying Field at Miami, Florida, was renamed 
the Marine Flying Field, the first in the history of the Corps.

     With the move to Miami came the formation of the 1st Marine Aviation 
Force, composed of a headquarters detachment and four landplane squadrons.  
This organization was ordered almost immediately to prepare to sail for 
France.  By 30 July 1918, three Marine squadrons, composed of 101 officers and 
657 enlisted men, arrived in France, followed by the fourth in October.  Upon 
their arrival, the Marine squadrons became the Day Wing of the Northern 
Bombing Group, while two Navy squadrons made up the Night Wing.  That was the 
first instance of wing and group organization in naval aviation.  The group, 
however, was the higher echelon, whereas in World War II the order was 

     The Marine pilots, like most American airmen in France, faced a most 
perplexing problem--no aircraft.  While they awaited delivery of their planes, 
they were assigned to British squadrons wherein they got their first taste of 
combat in DeHavilland aircraft (DH's).  It was not until 23 September that the 
Marines received their first DH in France.


     Although the Armistice came soon after Marine aviation arrived, the 
Marines performed creditably despite a shortage of planes and time.  They shot 
down at least 4, possibly as many as 12, German planes.  They performed the 
first recorded food dropping mission when they replenished a French regiment  
isolated for several days in the front lines on the Western Front.  For that 
accomplishment, three pilots were awarded the Distinguished Service Medal; 
their observers received the Navy Cross, at that time a lower rated 
decoration.  Two Medals of Honor were awarded a pilot (2dLt Ralph Talbot) and 
his observer  (GySgt Robert Guy Robinson) for shooting down two enemy planes 
against overwhelming odds.

     In World War I, a total of 282 officers and 2,180 enlisted men served in 
Marine aviation.  Of this number, about one half got overseas.

     Shortly after its return from France, Marine air began demobilizing.  In 
February 1919, the 1st Marine Aviation Force was disbanded at Miami, and the 
following month witnessed the dissolution of the First Marine Aeronautic 
Company, which had served in the Azores.  Remaining personnel at Miami were 
transferred in the summer of 1919, to Parris Island and Quantico, and the 
Marine Flying Field at Miami was abandoned on 25 September.  The following 
year, Marine aviation had but 67 pilots and suffered a still further reduction 
in 1921, when its pilot strength dropped to 43.

     Yet, between World Wars, the Marine Corps with its aviation was the only 
United States military service that actually


saw combat.  Marine air served in Santo Domingo from February 1919 until July 
1924; in Haiti from March 1919 to August 1934; and in Nicaragua from 1927 to 
1933.  Throughout those years, the handful of Marine pilots was not only 
experiencing combat but was also contributing radically new tactics to both 
ground and air warfare.  In Nicaragua, Marine pilots led by Major Ross E. 
Rowell were the first to use dive-bombing (a technique earlier developed by Lt 
L. H. M. Sanderson) against an organized enemy (Sandino's rebels); again in 
Nicaragua, they were the first to employ air-to-ground communications in 
combat; and there, they were the first to transport troops and supplies by 

     Marine pilots evacuated wounded in Haiti and Santo Domingo in the early 
1920's, utilizing two modified DH's designed by a Marine aviator.  But the 
most well known of the evacuation mission occurred during the fighting in 
Nicaragua.  Lieutenant, later General, Christian F. Schilt, on 6-8 January 
1928, made ten hair-raising flights, under fire, landing on a makeshift 
airfield in Quilali, to rescue 18 seriously wounded Marines who had been 
ambushed by the enemy.  For his "almost superhuman skill" Schilt was awarded 
the Medal of Honor.

     The first time Marine aviators ever served in the Pacific was when 10 
pilots and 90 enlisted men of Flight L, 4th Squadron, reached Guam on 17 March 
1921.  Flying seaplanes, those Marine pilots performed outpost duty on Guam 
for ten years.  However, most of this squadron had its Guam service 
interrupted for  duty even farther west, when in early 1927, a Chinese civil 
war threatened foreigners in Shanghai, Peking, and other cities. 


Elements of the Guam squadron were shipped to Shanghai in April, and were 
joined the following month by a headquarters detachment and a fighter squadron 
dispatched from San Diego.  These units in China eventually became Fighting 
Squadron 6-M, Observation Squadron 10-M, and Scouting Squadron 1-M.  For the 
next 18 months, Marine pilots flew 3,818 reconnaissance sorties around 
Tientsin to keep a watchful eye on the Chinese antagonists.  After the threat 
to foreigners had abated, the personnel from the Guam squadron returned to 
that island, and the other air units returned to the States.

     At home during those years of so-called peace, Marine aviators ardently 
and arduously labored to increase their knowledge of and proficiency in 
aeronautics.  They flew record-breaking flights, established speed records, 
won safety awards, dispatched medicine and supplies to areas stricken by 
earthquakes and hurricanes, and experimented in blind flying, aerial 
cartography and photography--preparing themselves for a future illustrious 

     Although it was not until 1925, that Marine aviation appeared at all in 
the annual schedule of the Naval Aeronautical Organization, it had been 
considered from its creation as an integral part of the naval forces.  As 
naval tactics changed, it became necessary for Marine aeronautical 
organization and  aviation tactics to change also.  From 1931 to 1934, VS-14M 
and VS-15M, the first Marine squadrons to become part of the fleet air 
organization, were aboard the carriers SARATOGA and LEXINGTON.


     On 8 December 1933, a step of vital importance was taken with the 
organization of the Fleet Marine Force, a unit constituted as an integral part 
of the United States fleet.  The development of the Fleet Marine Force brought 
about many changes in the organization of Marine aviation, among which was the 
laying of less stress on expeditionary duty and more on the seizure of advance 
naval bases in the event of war.

     The next organizational change of importance to Marine aviation came in 
1935, when the aviation section was divorced from the Division of Operations 
and Training and became an independent section under the Major General 
Commandant.  On 1 April 1936, it became a division under a Director of 
Aviation.  The director of the new division served as an adviser to the  
Commandant on all aviation matters, and as a liaison officer between the 
Marine Corps and the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics.  Unlike the Marine Corps 
infantry and artillery, which drew their equipment from both Army and Navy (in 
addition to supplying much of their own), Marine aviation depended solely on 
the Navy for its aircraft and all other aviation gear.

     On 30 June 1939, there were 210 officers and 1,142 enlisted men on active 
duty with Marine aviation.  In June 1940, the number had risen to 1,860.  In 
June 1940, Congress authorized the Navy's 10,000-plane program of which Marine 
aviation was allotted 1,167.  Plans were made for the establishment of 4 
groups of 11 squadrons each.  Following landing exercises in 1941, it was 
estimated that a single division making an amphibious landing would require 12 
fighter, 8 dive-bomber, 2 observation, and 4 utility squadrons.  But so great 
a number of squadrons was a long time materializing.


     Although the 1st and 2d Marine Aircraft Wings were commissioned in July 
1941, when war came five months later there was still only one group in each 
wing--Marine Aircraft Group 11 at Quantico and Marine Aircraft Group 21 with 
some units at Ewa and others at Wake Island.

     The Pearl Harbor attack liquidated all but one of the 48 Marine aircraft 
at Ewa--the one to escape was a transport sent to Ford Island for repairs.  
The personnel of Marine Aircraft Group 21 organized and directed the defense 
of their field so well that they were able to keep it open throughout the 
attack, thus rendering assistance to Army and Navy aircraft unable to reach 
their own stations for servicing; they downed a Japanese plane with a ground 
gun; and they had a lower percentage of battle casualties (4 killed, 13 
wounded) than any other field or station under attack in the area.

     The last of the 12 Marine planes at Wake was destroyed on 22 December.  
Yet, with a maximum of only five planes, seven having been destroyed in the 
initial attack on 8 December, Wake pilots sank the destroyer KISARAGI and shot 
down seven planes before their last aircraft was destroyed.  Then, the 20 
unwounded survivors of the squadron's complement of 61 joined the ground 
troops and fought as infantrymen until they were killed or captured.

     Shortly after mid-December, 17 Marine SB2U's (Vindicators), of VMSB 
(Marine Dive Bomber Squadron)-231, led by a Navy PBY, reached Midway after a 
spectacular flight of less than ten hours from Pearl--the longest mass 
overwater single-engined


flight on the books up to that time.  On Christmas Day 1941, Midway received 
its first fighters when 14 Marine F2A-3's (Brewster Buffaloes) of Marine 
Fighter Squadron 221 joined the dive-bombers there.

       Except for a skirmish of four Marine pilots with a reconnaissance plane 
from the Marshalls, which they shot down, Midway was in the doldrums until the 
following June, when the Battle of Midway occurred.  Outnumbered and 
outclassed by the Japanese Zero, Marine pilots, nevertheless, were unsurpassed 
in valor.  With inferior planes they valiantly met the first savage onslaught 
of Japan's superior aircraft.  Of the 25 fighter pilots, only 10 survived the 
first brief encounter; 13 of the 27 dive-bombers and their crews were lost.  
Captain Richard E. Fleming, a Marine pilot, posthumously received the Medal of 
Honor for diving his flaming bomber onto the deck of the Japanese cruiser 
MIKUMA, setting fires which so badly crippled her that Navy carrier-planes 
easily sank her.

     The importance of aviation to Marine tactics was graphically shown at 
Guadalcanal, where one of the first objectives of the assault was a partially 
completed Japanese airfield, later renamed Henderson Field.  Appalling 
shortages of everything earned Guadalcanal the name "Operation Shoestring."   
Despite gross inadequacies to its needs, Marine aviation based on Henderson 
Field devastated the overwhelming numbers of the highly vaunted Japanese air 
force and exploded the myth that the Japanese pilots and Zeros were 


     Upward from Guadalcanal, Marine planes winged their way, shattering every 
Japanese forged link in the Solomons chain: the Russells, New Georgia, Vella 
Lavella, and Bougainville, whence they bedeviled "impregnable" Rabaul until 
none of its five airfields was operable.  Through the Gilberts, Marshalls,  
Carolines, Marianas, and Palaus the thunder of the Marine Corsairs--the 
Japanese called them Whistling Death--relentlessly pursued the enemy.  From 
carriers they first hit the Philippines, and later, four Marine aircraft 
groups supported Army troops there.  In February 1945, Marine carrier aviation 
supported its own troops, at Iwo Jima, for the first time in history and  
struck Tokyo itself.  From the Emperor's own backyard, Okinawa, came the final 

     Marine pilots shot down their first enemy plane at Wake--their last at 
Okinawa.  Between those dates Marine aviation scored 2,355 "shoot downs" and 
produced 121 aces, 5 of whom downed 20 or more aircraft--Boyington, Foss, 
Hanson, Walsh, and Aldrich.  During World War II, the Marine Corps had as its 
peak number of units, 5 air wings, 31 aircraft groups, and 145 aircraft 
squadrons.  The largest number of personnel assigned at one time to Marine 
aviation was 125,162.

     On 7 September 1945, the airfield at Yokosuka was occupied by Marine 
Aircraft Group 31, which became the first aviation unit to operate on Japanese 
soil.  Shortly after the surrender, Marine aviation units in the Philippines 
moved to North China to carry out their peacetime mission of occupying the 
country, with some units remaining until January 1949.  But it was not


too long afterward--18 months--that Marine aviation was back in the Pacific to 
stop a new foe.

     Meanwhile, in the short-lived peace between 1945 and 1950, Marine 
aviation returned to the task of peacetime preparedness.  Principal among the 
many phases of training that went ever onward was familiarization with 
operations from carriers, a duty actually introduced to Marines, on a routine 
basis, late in World War II.  The innovation of the helicopter revitalized and 
reshaped the role of Marine aviation in amphibious warfare in the Nuclear Age.  
Once again Marine air introduced a new type of aerial war--this time in Korea.

     Korean hostilities commenced on 25 June 1950, and by 5 July, Marine air 
units were alerted for combat duty.  By the end of July, elements of MAG-33 
were already in Japan.  On 3 August, the first Marine aviation mission against 
the new enemy was flown by a carrier-based squadron.

     Marine aviation gave an outstanding performance in Korea--first when they 
went into action in support of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in the Pusan 
Perimeter.  Next came the Inchon landing by the 1st Marine Division, with 
squadrons of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing giving effective close air support  
from carriers during the amphibious assault and later from Kimpo Airfield.  
Following the collapse of North Korean resistance in early October 1950, 
airlifted elements of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing occupied the seaport town 
of Wonsan.  During the latter part of November and early part of December 
1950, when the 1st Marine Division was fighting its way through hordes of


Chinese Communist Forces from the Chosin Reservoir area to Hamhung, aircraft 
of the Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps supplied the division by airdrops and 
evacuated more than 5,000 casualties.  Marine aircraft, aided by those of the 
Navy, provided brilliant close air support, an important factor in the 1st  
Marine Division's breakout of the enemy trap and its fighting withdrawal to 

     Between August 1950 and 27 July 1953, units of the 1st Marine Aircraft 
Wing flew more than 118,000 sorties, of which more than 39,500 were close 
support missions.  Marine helicopter squadrons, during the same period, 
evacuated almost 10,000 personnel.

     Since the end of the Korean War, elements of the 1st Wing have remained 
on station in the Far East, where they bolstered the air defense of Taiwan in 
the latter part of 1958.  The 2d Marine Aircraft Wing, stationed at Cherry 
Point, North Carolina, has regularly provided squadrons for duty aboard 
carriers of  the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean.  These units, as well as 
Marine helicopters and airlift transports, figured as part of the Marine Corps 
force-in-readiness in the Lebanon operation in the summer of 1958.  The 3d 
Wing remains in El Toro, California, also providing squadrons for carrier 

     During the year 1959, Marine helicopter pilots and ground crewmen 
provided aid to homeless flood victims in Ceylon and Taiwan.

     In 1960, 1961, and 1962, Marine aviation units continued to support their 
ground colleagues.  Throughout the Caribbean,


the Far East, and in the Mediterranean area, aviation units stationed afloat 
maintained a vigilant watch, ready to lend assistance in troubled areas.

     Aviation units, as part of our Fleet Marine Force, remain in close 
proximity to amphibious shipping, and stand as a constant reminder that 
Marines are ready and able to counter aggression in any quarter of the globe, 
ever assisting our Navy in extending the long arm of seapower ashore.


The material in this paper for the period through World War II is based upon 
Capt Edna L. Smith, MCWR, "Aviation Organization in the United States Marine 
Corps, 1912-1945---Essays in the History of Naval Air Operations, v. V," ms. 
monograph, Naval Aviation History Unit, Office of the Chief of Naval 
Operations, n.d. (copy in Aviation Subject File, Historical Branch, HQMC); 
Robert Sherrod, "History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II" 
(Washington:  Combat Forces Press, 1952); and historical records of Marine 
aviation in the Pacific War.  The material for the Korean War period is 
derived from the operational records of Marine units engaged.  All original 
records used are in the custody of the Historical Branch, HQMC.


                                  Appendix 1


Maj     Alfred A. Cunningham     17  Nov  1919  - 12  Dec  1920
LtCol   Thomas C. Turner         13  Dec  1920  -  2  Mar  1925
Maj     Edward H. Brainard        3  Mar  1925  -  9  May  1929
Col     Thomas C. Turner         10  Nay  1929  - 28  Oct  1931<2>
Maj     Roy S. Geiger             6  Nov  1931  - 29  May  1935
Col     Ross E. Rowell           30  May  1935  - 10  Mar  1939
BriGen  Ralph J. Mitchell        11  Mar  1939  - 29  Mar  1943<3>
MajGen  Roy S. Geiger            13  May  1943  - 15  Oct  1943
BriGen  Louis E. Woods           15  Oct  1943  - 17  Jul  1944
MajGen  Field Harris             18  Jul  1944  - 24  Feb  1948
MajGen  William J. Wallace       24  Feb  1948  -  1  Sep  1950
BriGen  Clayton C. Jerome         1  Sep  1950  -  1  Apr  1952
LtGen   William O. Brice          1  Apr  1952  - 31  Jul  1955
LtGen   Christian F. Schilt       1  Aug  1955  - 31  Mar  1957
LtGen   Verne J. McCaul           l  Apr  1957  -  2  Dec  1957<4>
MajGen  Samuel S. Jack           14  Jan  1958  - 20  Feb  1958
MajGen  John C. Munn             21  Feb  1958  - 14  Dec  1959
MajGen  Arthur F. Binney         15  Dec  1959  - 10  Sep  1961
Col     Kieth B. McCutcheon      11  Sep  1961  - 17  Feb  1962
Col     Marion E. Carl           18  Feb  1962  -  4  Jul  1962<5>
BriGen  Norman J. Anderson        5  Jul  1962  -

<1>  On 1 Apr 1936, the title of the senior aviator attached to Headquarters,
     U. S. Marine Corps, was changed from Officer in Charge, Aviation, to
     Director of Aviation.

<2>  Hiatus due to accidental death of Col Turner in Haiti on 28 Oct 1931.

<3>  Col Clayton C. Jerome was Acting Director, 30 Mar - 12 May 1943.

<4>  Col John L. Smith was Acting Director, 3 Dec 1947 - 13 Jan 1958.

<5>  As of 25 Apr 1962, the designation Division of Aviation was changed to
     Office of Deputy Chief of Staff (Air).  Concurrently, the title of
     Director of Aviation was redesignated Deputy Chief of Staff (Air).


                                   Appendix 2


Marine aircraft can be identified by the following letter-number system 
introduced in 1923:

     The first letter indicates the type of plane, the second the manufacturer 
with a number appended standing for the modification of the aircraft, e.g., an 
FF-2 is identified as a fighter, by (F) Grumman, (2) second modification.  A 
number inserted between type and manufacturer's letters indicates the model 
number of the designer's aircraft in the same class (the first model or design 
number "1" always omitted), e.g., an F6C-1 is identified as a (F) fighter, (6) 
sixth model, by (C) Curtiss, (1) first modification.

     Suffixes have had to be added when aircraft have been equipped for 
special missions or have certain modifications, e.g., an SBD-4P is defined as 
a (SB) scout-bomber by (D) Douglas, (4) fourth modification, equipped for (P) 

                                  TYPE LETTERS

A  - Attack; ambulance                   P  - Patrol
B  - Bomber                              PB - Patrol-bomber
F  - Fighter                             R  - Transport (Multiengine)
G  - Transport (single engine)           S  - Scout
H  - Helicopter; hospital                SB - Scout-bomber
J  - Transport and general               SN - Scout-trainer
     utility                             SO - Scout-observation
JR - Utility-transport                   T  - Torpedo and bombing; trainer
N  - Trainer                             TB - Torpedo-bomber
O  - Observation                         U  - Utility
OS - Observation-scout                   X  - Experimental

                             MANUFACTURERS' SYMBOLS

The year shown opposite the manufacturer indicated the first time that 
particular manufacturer's symbol appeared in the designation of aircraft 
assigned to the Marines.

A - Atlantic (1927)                       E - Bellanca (1923)
A - Brewster (1936)                       E - Cessna (1951)
B - Beech (1941)                          E - Piper (1942)
B - Boeing (1925)                         F - Columbia (1944)
C - Cessna (1943)                         F - Fairchild (Canada) (1944)
C - Curtiss (1926)                        F - Grumman (1934)
    (Curtiss Wright)                      G - Great Lakes (1935)
D - Douglas (1923)


H - Howard (1942)                         R - Ford (1929)
H - McDonnell (1947                       S - Sikorsky (1931
J - North American                        S - Stearman (1944
K - Fairchild (U. S.)                     T - New Standard (1931)
    (1943)                                T - Northrop (1946)
K - Kaman (1952)                          T - Timm (1942)
L - Bell (1951)                           U - Chance Vought (1927) 
L - Loening (1926)                            (Vought-Sikorsky)
M - General Motors (1943)                 V - Lockheed (1950)
M - Glenn L. Martin (1922)                V - Vega (1943)
N - Naval Aircraft Factory                V - Vultee (1943)
    (1942)                                W - Canadian Cart Foundry (1944)
O - Lockheed  1939                        W - Dayton-Wright (1925)
P - Piasecki  1952                        X - Cox-Klemin (1926)
P - Pitcairn  1931                        W - Dayton-Wright (1925)
P - Spartan   1937                        Y - Consolidated (1926)
Q - Fairchild (1950)                      Y - Consolidated-Vultee (1942)

                                 SUFFIX LETTERS

A - Amphibious                        N(A) - All-weather stripped 
B - Special Armament                         for day operations
C - Carrier operation of                NL - All-weather and winterized
    noncarrier aircraft                  P - Photographic
D - Drone control                        Q - Countermeasures
E - Special radar; special               R - Transport-personnel/support
    electronics                          T - Training
F - Flagship                             W - Special search; air warning;
H - Hospital                                 airborne early warning
L - Winterized                           Z - Administrative
M - Missile carrier
N - Night; all-weather


                                   Appendix 3


     Washington:  Historical Division, Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 1951.

     CORPS AVIATION IN WORLD WAR II.  New York and London:  Harper & Brothers,

LtCol Robert D. Heinl, Jr., USMC.  THE DEFENSE OF WAKE.  Washington: 
     Historical Section, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, U. S. 
     Marine Corps, 1947.

LtCol Robert D. Heinl, Jr., USMC.  MARINES AT MIDWAY.  Washington: Historical
     Section, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, U. S. Marine 
     Corps, 1948.

Capt Richard G. Hubler, USMCR, and Capt John A. DeChant, USMCR.  FLYING
     1941-1944.  New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1944.

Jeter A. Isely and Philip A. Crowl.  THE U. S. MARINES AND AMPHIBIOUS WAR--ITS
     THEORY AND ITS PRACTICE IN THE PACIFIC.  Princeton:  Princeton University
     Press, 1951.

William T. Larkins.  U. S. MARINE CORPS AIRCRAFT 1914-1959.  Concord, Calif.

     New York:  G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939.

     HELICOPTERS.  New York:  Harper & Brothers, 1954.

     Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1952.

Capt Archibald D. Turnbull, USNR, and LCdr Clifford L. Lord, USNR HISTORY OF
     UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION.  New Haven:  Yale University Press, 1949.


These items and much more can be found at The Marine Corps Research Center (MCRC)

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