A Brief History Of The 1st Marines by Major John H. Johnstone, USMC First Printing 1962 Revised 1968 Historical Branch, G-3 Division Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps Washington, D. C. 20380 1968 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON 25, D. C. PREFACE The revision of "A Brief History of the 1st Marines" provides a narrative account of the Regiment from its formation in 1899 to its participation in Vietnam in 1967. This history is published for the information of those who are interest in the 1st Marines and the role it played and continues to play in adding to Marine Corps traditions and battle honors.
R. G. OWENS Brigadier General, U. S. Marine Corps Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 Reviewed and approved: 8 March 1968 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 1ST MARINES TABLE OF CONTENTS Original Online Page Page Brief History of the 1st Marines 1 6 Notes 29 34 Appendix A - Commanding Officers, 1st Marines, 1900-1967 35 40 Appendix B - 1st Marines Medal of Honor Recipients 43 48 Appendix C - Honors of 1st Marines 44 49 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 1ST MARINES by Major John H. Johnstone, USMC Early Force in Readiness The achievements of the 1st Marines provide some of the most colorful and inspiring pages in the military history of the United States. It is the oldest permanently organized regiment of the Marine Corps, and over the years, it has served with distinction wherever the national interests of the United States have required. The 1st Regiment<1> had its birth in the Philippines in 1899 as an outgrowth of the Spanish American War.<2> Under the provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 10 December 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. Until civil government could be established, the islands were placed under the administrative control of the United States Army. This was not acceptable to Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader, who had headed an earlier revolt against the Spanish and had more recently formed an insurgent unit to assist the United States forces against the Spanish. Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines, established a provisional government, and, on 20 January 1899, proclaimed his constitution and assumed the presidency. On 4 February, he attacked the United States forces at Manila. The Army had been given the mission of guarding Cavite, the chief naval base in the Philippines. When the soldiers were pulled out and committed in the operations against the insurgents, Cavite was left unprotected. By the second week of March, Admiral George Dewey, Commander in Chief of the Asiatic Fleet, sent for a battalion of Marines to protect the base.<3> The battalion of 15 officers and 260 enlisted men, which was assembled at the New York Navy Yard, shipped out on 13 April under the command of Colonel Percival C. Pope. It was equipped with four 3-inch field pieces, two Colt machine guns, and the men were armed with Lee 6mm rifles. A second battalion came into being as the result of a request on 26 July 1899 from Rear Admiral John C. Watson, new commander of the Asiatic Station, for additional Marines for duty at Cavite. Within a month, the battalion of 16 officers and 362 enlisted men, commanded by Major George F. Elliott 1 (10th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1903-1910), was on its way to the Philippines. On 15 December, a third battalion of 15 officers and 325 enlisted men, under the command of Major Littleton W. T. Waller, arrived in the Philippines. Three days later, this battalion was disbanded, and its personnel were distributed between the first and second battalions, with Major Waller assuming command of the first battalion. Each of the two battalions at first had four companies designated A, B, C, and D. To complete the reorganization, the companies of the second battalion were redesignated E, F, G, and H, and the two battalions were joined together to form the 1st Regiment.<4> During 1899-1901, detachments from the "brigade" and later 1st Regiment were detailed as guards and garrisoned various points around Subic Bay with greater concentrations placed in the Cavite area. During these years, the men of the regiment set an outstanding record protecting the bases from insurgents and thieves and maintaining law and order in the occupied areas. Notable in the early service was the valuable assistance rendered by a detachment of Marines with a Colt machine gun, under command of Captain Henry C. Haines, in support of United States Army units in the march from Bacoor to Imus in October 1899.<5> In December, as part of a joint Army-Navy operation to clear the western part of Luzon of insurgents, Captain Herbert L. Draper's Company E was ordered from Cavite to Olongapo to occupy the town and clear the surrounding country of insurgents and marauders. An incident involving this company, on 16 February 1900, illustrates the use of naval vessels in support of Marine operations against the Filipino insurgents. On that date, it was necessary to send working parties to Benictican in Bataan Province for water. One of these parties was attacked, and two Marines were killed.<6> A rescue party from Olongapo drove off the insurgents, who retired to Moron, a town on the west coast of Bataan Peninsula, where they had a headquarters with a blockhouse and a system of entrenchments. Captain Draper, determined to punish the offenders, persuaded the captain of a native steamer to tow the disabled gunboat USS MANILENO with his force to Moron. Surprising the defenders, he destroyed the town and burned the blockhouse. After warning all inhabitants to leave Benictican for Olongapo or be declared outlaws, Draper arranged for the gunboat USS NASHVILLE to bombard that town on 23 February. After the shelling he entered Benictican, found it abandoned, and destroyed it completely. In addition to his military duties, Captain Draper exercised civil authority in Olongapo working through local 2 officials. The town, a refuge for civilians who were not in sympathy with the insurgents, gradually increased in population. Municipal elections were held with a president, vice-president, and secretary being elected by secret ballot; mayors of Benictican and Santa Rita were also chosen. Small taxes were levied to defray the cost of maintaining the native police, cleaning the streets, and providing sanitation for the town. The Marines supplemented local services in many ways. They issued rations to prevent starvation, supplied medicines and medical attention, and set up a school to teach English. At the same time that the 1st Regiment was helping to restore law and order in the Philippines, a violently antiforeign organization rose in rebellion in China, determined to oust all foreigners from their country. The Boxers, as they were called, destroyed several Christian villages in the early months of 1900. Murder and pillage was their creed. By May, the foreigners in the capital city of Peking were surrounded and in desperate straits. An international force of about 2,000 men, including 112 American seamen and Marines, attempting to raise the siege, was itself besieged in an arsenal between Tientsin and Peking. The American government was greatly concerned over the situation and directed Admiral George C. Remey, now Commander-in-Chief of the Asiatic Naval Station, to render all possible assistance to the besieged forces. As a result, a provisional battalion, composed of Companies A, C, and H of the 1st Regiment, landed at Taku Bar on 19 June 1900.<7> The battalion, commanded by Major Waller, moved inland to a point 12 miles from Tientsin where it joined with a Russian force of about 400 men.<8> The Russian commander, over Waller's protest that the joint force was insufficient, insisted on moving the following morning to the relief of the Tientsin garrison. Waller was proved to be right as the effort failed, and the Marines and Russians withdrew to await reinforcements. On 11 July, Colonel Robert L. Meade and 300 men of his 1st Regiment together with the 9th Infantry, United States Army, arrived at Taku. The American reinforcements joined Waller's battalion, the Russian troops, and a British force in the advance on Tientsin. On 13 July, the siege of the foreign quarter of the city was lifted, and on the following day, the column broke through to the arsenal.<9> Shortly after the relief, Colonel Meade relinquished the command of the 1st Regiment to Major Waller, who, in turn, was soon succeeded by Major William P. Biddle (11th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1911-1914). 3 By late July, the allied force was built up to about 18,660, and on 4 August, under the command of Major General Adna R. Chaffee, USA, it moved towards Peking. Minor resistance was encountered on the 80-mile march to the Chinese capital; however at Yang Tsun, on 6 August, the Marines did participate in a noteworthy engagement. The Boxers launched cavalry attacks on the allied column but were repulsed. After helping drive off these fanatic horsemen, Biddle's Marines assisted in seizing two enemy-held villages in spite of receiving heavy fire from artillery and small arms.<10> Pushing on from Yang Tsun, the relief expedition reached Peking on 14 August and immediately launched an attack on the outer wall of the city. During the day, the Marines, assigned the mission of protecting the artillery, engaged in fire rights with the Boxers at the Chien-Men Gate. Taking position in a storied pagoda and along the wall, the men of the Regiment poured a devastating fire into the enemy, mainly in the direction of the main gate. By afternoon, the stubborn Boxers had been driven from the outer works, and the siege was lifted with the foreign residents passing through the Marines' lines to safety. On the following day, the attacks of all allied troops was successful, and the Chinese were gradually driven out of the remainder of the city. On entering the Forbidden City, Company D of the 1st Regiment had the honor of hoisting the regimental colors over one of the administration buildings.<11> The Imperial Court had fled Peking leaving the area with virtually no government, so the Marines remained in the city to assist United States Army units in preventing looting and in restoring order. On 4 September, the 2d Battalion of the 1st Regiment arrived in China as part of the 1st Brigade of the China Relief Expedition. Shortly thereafter, the independent 4th and 5th Battalions arrived from the United States as part of the 2d Brigade. The Marines remained in Peking until 28 September, when it was possible to withdraw them to the Philippines. Upon the return of the regiment to the Philippines, it brought with it the 4th and 5th Battalions.<12> With this added strength available, the Marines in the Philippines were reorganized into a provisional brigade of two regiments, each with two battalions.<13> In October, the Navy was able to take over the responsibility for the military government of the Cavite Peninsula and, in November, of the Subic Bay area. The 1st Regiment of Lieutenant Colonel Mancil C. Goodrell took station at Olongapo leaving the 2d Regiment and Brigade Headquarters at Cavite. Over the next two years, the majority of the 1st Regiment was usually stationed at Olongapo, although occasional company-sized detachments were posted in outlying areas. These companies were given the responsibility for 4 administering local government in the areas occupied. In carrying out this duty, Marine officers were appointed to various special tasks such as captains of the port, district commanders, inspectors of customs, internal revenue collectors, and provost judges and marshals. In 1900 and 1901, the areas occupied by Marine units in the Philippines remained comparatively free of insurrection; however, the insurgents of the island of Samar were still unpacified. On 28 September 1901, the soldiers of Company C, Ninth Infantry, stationed at Balangiga, were massacred by the insurrectos.<14> This tragedy led Brigadier General Jacob M. Smith, United States Army, who was in command of the military district which included the island of Samar, to call for reinforcements. On 20 October 1901, in response to this request, a provisional battalion of Marines (15 officers and 300 enlisted), commanded by Major Littleton W. T. Waller, was detailed for duty in Samar. Two days later, the battalion, composed of Companies C, D, and H of the 1st Regiment and Company F of the 2d Regiment, departed Cavite. At the end of the month, the Marines arrived in Basey, Samar, where Major Waller disembarked his headquarters and two companies to relieve units of the 9th Infantry. The remainder of the battalion proceeded to Balangiga and relieved the 17th Infantry. Given responsibility for the southern half of the Island, Waller sent out daily expeditions to rid the surrounding countryside of insurgents. As the Marines sapped the strength and restricted the freedom of movement of the rebellious Moros, the insurgents gradually fell back from the southern coast of Samar. By November, they had retreated to their final hideout, the heavily fortified defenses of the Sohoton Cliffs. Attacking under Captains Hiram I. Bearss and David D. Porter, the Marines penetrated an area never before visited by white forces. The Moros were completely surprised and their position was quickly overrun and destroyed. The long march, exhausting climb, and shortage of rations caused the chase to be abandoned. In December 1901, Major Waller, in command of a force largely composed of men of the 1st Regiment, undertook the historic march across Samar in an effort to locate a route for laying a telephone line to connect the east and west coasts. Militarily, the effort contributed little, but as an epic in the annals of courage and determination, the 190-mile march remains one of the most memorable records of the Marine Corps.<15> This small band of Marines, lacking in food and clothing, moved through virtually impenetrable terrain which necessitated the crossing and recrossing of greatly swollen streams, while at the same time, it was subject to insurgent harassment. On 2 March 1902, after having been relieved by a 5 United States Army detachment, Waller's battalion returned to Cavite to rejoin the regiment. The 1st Regiment now had the opportunity to participate in a training exercise involving the defense of an advance base--a mission to become of foremost importance in the later history of the Marine Corps. In accordance with the recommendations of the General Board of the Navy<16>, Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, Commander-in-Chief, Asiatic Fleet, set up as one of the Fleet exercises for December 1902, the seizing of an undefended harbor on a hypothetical enemy's coast and the subsequent defense of the harbor against an enemy counterlanding. An expeditionary force of 200 Marines from the 1st and 2d Regiments, with supplies and equipment from the advance base outfit, occupied Grande Island, at the entrance to Subic Bay. After they landed, the Marines installed guns for the protection of mine fields laid in the channels on each side of the island. On the conclusion of this successful problem, headquarters of the 1st Regiment and three companies were stationed at Cavite. However, Olongapo shortly became the chief naval base in the islands, with most of the regiment moving there. With the Philippines now cleared of insurgent activities and wide-spread banditry, the regiment settled down to normal garrison routine with emphasis on training for whatever might come. Throughout the next decade, the 1st Regiment participated in a number of actions in the Far East. It provided a part of the detachment of about 100 men and 3 officers sent to Korea, where, on 27 December 1903, a guard was established at the United States Legation in Seoul.<17> On 12 September 1905, a similar detachment arrived at Peking, China, to relieve a United States Army unit as Legation Guard.<18> In October 1911, a battalion from Olongapo was sent to Shanghai to protect American lives and property when a revolution erupted against the Manchu dynasty in China.<19> The importance of the Philippines as a naval base diminished with the development of Pearl Harbor. In April 1914, the Brigade as such was disbanded with the staff of the 1st Regiment and Companies B and E being detached to the Provisional Regiment, Guam, leaving Company A at Cavite and Companies C and D at Olongapo still under the title of 1st Regiment.<20> Intervention and Advance Base Duties On 3 January 1904, another 1st Regiment<21> was formed at Empire, Panama, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel William P. Biddle. This 1st Regiment was part of the Provisional Brigade sent to the Panamanian Isthmus to prevent the landing of any force which might threaten the railroads and the site of 6 the proposed canal in the newly recognized Republic of Panama.<22> While on duty on the isthmus, the regiment concerned itself with terrain familiarization. Numerous patrols were sent out to reconnoiter trails and locate and map the principal topographical features. Considerable time was spent in making reconnaissances and studies for the defense of the proposed canal and the city of Panama. With relations between Columbia and the United States perceptibly improved, it was possible on 25 February to withdraw all Marines from Panama except the 1st Battalion, 1st Regiment, which was to remain as a stabilizing element until 22 December.<23> The next designated "1st Regiment" was organized at Philadelphia in 1906 for duty in Cuba where revolution threatened American lives and property.<24> Spain gave up sovereignty in Cuba in accordance with the Treaty of Paris, and the right to intervene was established by the Platt Amendment.<25> After standing by aboard ship for several days, the regiment landed at Havana on 29 September and immediately moved inland to Cienfuegos, the capital of Santa Clara Province and the stronghold of insurgent sentiment.<26> The arrival of the Marines had a quieting effect on the populace. The commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel George Barnett (12th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1914-1920), sent detachments into the surrounding countryside to garrison and protect key points. On 2 October, the regiment became part of the 1st Brigade commanded by Lieutenant Colonel L. W. T. Waller, and went about' its tasks of settling local disputes, disarming insurgents, patrolling, and mapping. When Army units took over the garrisoning of Cuba, the Marines stayed on to assist. With only one-fifth the numerical strength of the Army force, the Marines carried a large part of the occupational burden. On 31 August 1907, for example, 11 stations were occupied by Marines while 18 were occupied by Army troops. In the months that followed, the pacification of Cuba continued. For the Marines, of what had become the 1st Provisional Regiment as of 1 November 1906, life fell into a pattern of routine duty. They continued to patrol the countryside to insure the preservation of order. They protected property and cooperated with local authorities in the management of civil affairs. The boredom and sameness of this duty was relieved by an occasional liberty in Havana.<27> With the election of a democratic government promised by 1 February 1909, the United States occupation of Cuba could be terminated. On 1 January, the first contingent sailed in USS PRAIRIE, and by the 23d the last of the regiment had left Havana 7 for the United States. For two and one-half years, the 1st Regiment's Marines had performed their onerous and often tedious duties with typical Marine crispness. They left behind a history of dedication to duty and friendship with the Cuban people. What was unforeseeable then was that the regiment would return to Cuba in the very near future. On 2 December 1909, the 1st Regiment, now under command of Colonel James E. Mahoney, sailed from Philadelphia via the Canal Zone for Nicaragua, where, on 11 December; it became part of the brigade sent to that country to maintain order during a revolution. The regiment did not have to land at this time, and on 10 March 1910, it sailed back to Philadelphia leaving one battalion at Camp Elliott, Panama.<28> The 1st Regiment, 1st Provisional Brigade, was organized aboard the USS PRAIRIE on 8 March 1911 for temporary foreign shore service in Cuba.<29> Actually, this maneuver was designed as a show of force to dissuade Mexican rebel activities near the border of the United States.<30> The Marine Corps, having demonstrated its readiness and ability to move quickly from either coast to troubled areas, returned the regiment to Philadelphia by 22 June with the knowledge that it could be readily mobilized if again needed.<31> The next 1st Regiment so designated had its inception in the Advance Base Battalion formed at Philadelphia on 11 August.<32> This Battalion, composed of Companies E, F, and G, became the Advance Base School established at Philadelphia on 11 September to train Marines for advance base activities. A cadre from the school formed the nucleus of the 1st Provisional Regiment organized on 23 May 1912 for expeditionary duty in Cuba, where the Negro Revolt threatened United States lives and property. Colonel Lincoln Karmany and has successor, Colonel George Barnett, employed the regiment in guarding towns and plantations against marauding bands of rebels, thereby relieving the regular Cuban troops for operations in the field.<33> A company was sent to Santiago, with reinforcements following, and another company was sent to Manzanillo, but the bulk of the regiment remained in camp at Guantanamo Bay until 5 June when it moved to inland areas. Gradually, the regular Cuban forces prevailed over the rebels, and by July, Marine forces were withdrawing as they turned over their guard duties to the Cubans. On 1 August, the 1st Provisional Regiment departed Camp Meyer, Guantanamo Bay aboard the USS PRAIRIE bound for Philadelphia. On 5 August, the regiment ceased to exist with its companies returning to their original stations.<34> Yet another 1st Regiment was organized at Philadelphia on 21 August 19l2 again with the Advance Base School furnishing the personnel for its nucleus. Under the command of Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton, it sailed aboard the USS PRAIRIE on the 24th for 8 expeditionary duty in Nicaragua, where revolution threatened American lives and interests. The regiment opened up the rail line from Managua to Granada and gradually restored order in the country. By the end of the year, the regiment's task was finished, and on 6 January 1913, it was back in Philadelphia, where its units were returned to their original stations.<35> The Advance Base School also provided most of the personnel for the 1st Regiment organized at Philadelphia in early February 1913 for more expeditionary duty in Cuba.<36> On the 20th of the month, under the command of Colonel George Barnett, it left Philadelphia for Guantanamo Bay to take up occupational duty as part of the 2d Provisional Brigade maintaining order in the midst of further rebellion. With its task completed, the regiment returned to Philadelphia, where, on 3 May, it was disbanded. The Advance Base Battalion was again organized on 19 May, and with the activation of a second Advance Base Battalion on 17 July, both battalions were organized into the 1st Advance Base Regiment.<37> The regiment was composed of C Company, a mine company trained to handle harbor defense mines; E Company, a signal company specialized in radio, telephone, telegraph, buzzers, and visual signaling; a field artillery battery which manned 3-inch field pieces; F and I Companies, which manned fixed batteries intended to be mounted for harbor defense; and H Company, which was trained both as an engineer company and as a machine gun company. The regiment was to provide the force of technical troops and equipment required for the seizure and defense of an advance base. In the beginning, it was generally referred to as the "Fixed Defense Regiment." However, each company was also thoroughly schooled in infantry weapons and tactics to assure that all Marines were well familiar with their primary occupational specialty. On 23 December 1913, the regiment became part of the Advance Base Brigade formed at Philadelphia.<38> On 3 January 1914, it sailed with the Brigade for maneuvers with the Atlantic Fleet at Culebra, Puerto Rico. These maneuvers, forerunner of many to come over the years, consisted of the occupation and defense of the island of Culebra by the Advance Base Brigade with the landing force of the Atlantic Fleet acting as aggressor forces. The mission of the 1st Regiment in defense included the placing of batteries of 3-inch guns on each side of the entrance to Culebra's harbor and laying control mines off shore. The signal company, in addition to laying the above mines, provided telegraphic and telephonic connections for the entire brigade, established radio stations, and operated day and night visual stations. The engineer company assisted the fixed gun companies in the preparation of gun emplacements, built docks for the handling of heavy material, and established machine gun positions on certain parts of the harbor shore line. The First 3-inch Battery emplaced 4.7-inch 9 guns in permanent positions, holding its 3-inch field pieces in reserve. Upon the successful completion of these maneuvers, the regiment sailed to Pensacola, Florida, and then on to New Orleans, Louisiana. Here on 18 February 1914, the 1st Advance Base Regiment was redesignated 1st Regiment, Advance Base Brigade.<39> For the next two months, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles G. Long, it operated aboard ship off New Orleans and Algiers, Louisiana. The location of the regiment at this time was no accident; its operation in waters just north of Mexico was part of another show of force by the United States in protest of the rule of the latest revolutionary victor in that country.<40> The Mexican situation worsened, and Marine forces were ordered to land at Vera Cruz to seize the customs house and prevent the landing of arms and ammunition by belligerents. The 1st Regiment landed on 22 April and joined the 2d and 3d Regiments in clearing the city.<41> Sectors of Vera Cruz were assigned each regiment with orders to search every building for arms, to arrest all suspicious persons, and to stop the sniping. The search was exhaustive and difficult with the sniping continuing. On the 23d, opposition slackened with the Marines occupying a large area of the city. On 30 April, United States Army forces moved in with the Marine Brigade. The 1st Regiment took its turn at outpost duty and used the opportunity for field training. On 23 November, its Mexican tasks completed, the regiment returned to Philadelphia.<42> On 3 December, the entire brigade was reorganized giving one regiment the mission of fixed defense and the other the mission of mobile defense. The 1st Regiment, the fixed defense regiment, was assigned a fire control unit and eight companies. These included four 5-inch gun companies, a searchlight company, a mine company, an engineer company, and an antiaircraft company. <43> The increase of firepower included in this reorganization strengthened the regiment's capabilities in keeping with Navy concern for the further development of the Marine Advance Base force. By the summer of 1915, however, advance base work had to be put aside for immediate problems. This time, the 1st Regiment was called to reinforce Marine forces in Haiti. The policy which dictated United States intervention resulted from requests by American business interests and the chaotic conditions which then existed in Haiti. Also the United States felt obligated by the Monroe Doctrine to protect the interests and property of foreign (European) nations.<44> On 15 August, the 1st Regiment, minus the 2d Company which remained at Philadelphia for instruction in submarine mining, landed the 4th, 6th, and 22d Companies at Port au Prince and the 5th, 11th, 19th, and 23d Companies at Cape Haitian.<45> 10 In addition to rendering assistance in maintaining the economic stability of the country, the regiment carried out extensive patrolling into the interior of the country. An estimated 25 to 50 thousand Cacos lived in the rugged mountains near the Dominican Republic. These people were soldiers of fortune who lived on the country as bandits in normal times and supported one or the other of the candidates for the presidency during revolutionary periods. The mission of the 1st Regiment in the next few months was to seek out and pacify, or "tame," the Cacos. The Marines had many skirmishes with these rebels, with the attack and capture of Fort Riviere on 17 November being an engagement of particular note. The fort was situated on the summit of Montagne Noir, 4,000 feet above the sea, commanding the surrounding country for miles in every direction. The fort itself was an old French bastion of approximately 200 square feet with thick walls of brick and stone. The walls had been loop-holed to command the plain at the foot of the height. Fortunately for the attacking Marines, the fire of the Cacos was inaccurate; the only real difficulty encountered was in climbing the hill. The main entrance to the fort on the north had been sealed by the Cacos, and a breach in the south wall had been made for passage. It was through this hole that the Marines forced their way, overwhelming the enemy within the fort in a vicious ten-minute fray. General Joseph, the Caco leader, was killed, and the survivors escaped over the walls. With the capture of Fort Capois shortly thereafter, the country became relatively stable with its inhabitants resuming more peaceful pursuits. The regiment continued to patrol and garrison a number of towns until called to the neighboring Dominican Republic where internal disorders in the early months of 1916 threatened American lives and property. By the end of April, the 1st Regiment had joined the 1st, 9th, 13th (artillery), 14th, and 24th Companies from the 2d Regiment in Haiti, and in the first days of May, these companies together with the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 19th Companies of the regiment were moved to Santo Domingo City to protect the American Legation and later to occupy the city during a period of insurrection. On 1 July, the companies remaining in Haiti were detached from the 1st Regiment, the Field and Staff (Regimental Headquarters) and Headquarters Detachments of the 1st and 2d Regiments exchanged designations, and the 1st Regiment was reorganized in the Dominican Republic.<46> During its remaining months in the Republic, the regiment served as part of the 2d Provisional Brigade engaged in patrolling, manning garrisons, and administering the areas it occupied. On 19 December, the companies of the 1st Regiment headed home to Philadelphia leaving the Field and Staff at Santo Domingo City, where the latter was disbanded on 31 December.<47> 11 On 1 January 1917, the 1st Regiment, Fixed Defense Force was organized at Philadelphia, with the bulk of its personnel coming from the companies just returned from the Dominican Republic.<48> It was initially composed of the 2d, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 19th Companies, with Headquarters Detachment being organized and the 11th and 22d Companies joining on 11 February. The Fixed Defense Force was organized as a result of possible naval requirements for establishing an advanced naval base somewhere in the Caribbean area to protect the Panama Canal during World War I.<49> With the German fleet never putting to sea, the base in the Caribbean was not needed. The 1st Regiment remained at Philadelphia during the war months, training officers and men in handling, installing, and using advance base material.<50> The beginnings of later amphibious training may be found in this advance base work, however, the emphasis at this time was on defense. The regiment acquired heavier artillery, and more signal, searchlight, communications, and engineer units. These tenuous years were unglamorous ones for the 1st Regiment with its fixed defense problems complicated by the frequent detaching and joining of various companies. These changes were necessitated by the regiment's basic mission as well as those of providing replacements for Marine units in Europe and of maintaining occupation troops in certain of the Caribbean countries. By the fall of 1918, with war demands lessening and more personnel available through peak mobilization, the regiment was able to participate in full scale training. On 3 November, it embarked aboard the USS HANCOCK for maneuvers in Cuban waters. In December, the regiment was incorporated into the 6th Provisional Brigade engaged in Cuba in protecting American lives and property during the Sugar Intervention.<51> On 20 June 1919, with its Cuban employment over, the regiment again boarded the USS HANCOCK for Philadelphia for further training in the principles of advance base activities. On 18 October 1920, the regiment was transferred from Philadelphia to Quantico, where training and schooling in advance base techniques continued. On 22 December it became part of the 3d Brigade stationed at Quantico. By May 1921, the regiment was composed of four battalions--signal, engineer, searchlight, and antiaircraft. The next year was spent in extensive training. In the spring of 1922, most of its units were transferred to the 10th Marines or Marine Barracks, Quantico, and on 1 April, the 1st Regiment was disbanded.<52> On 1 August 1922, the 3d Regiment, 2d Brigade at Santo Domingo City Dominican Republic, was redesignated as the 1st Regiment.<53> It was reorganized to include Headquarters Company and Service Company, transferred from the 3d Regiment; Headquarters 1st Battalion, organized at Santo Domingo City; 12 the 44th, 114th, 182d, and 187th Companies, joined from the 15th Regiment; Headquarters 2d Battalion, organized at Santo Domingo City; and the 52d, 115th, and 210th Companies, joined from the 3d Regiment. In the Dominican Republic, the regiment functioned as part of the 2d Brigade backing up the Dominican Policia, but it did not have to take the field or exercise any control over the Dominican government. These months in the Republic were used to advantage in training under field conditions at Camp E. B. Cole, Santo Domingo City.<54> Early in 1924, several companies were phased back to the United States or transferred to other organizations in the Dominican Republic. With the establishment of a regular government by the local authorities in July 1924, the regiment was disbanded.<55> On 15 March 1925, another 1st Regiment was organized at Marine Barracks, Quantico.<56> It was composed of Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Service Company, Barracks Detachment, Motor Transport Detachment and Rifle Range Detachment. During the next six years, it was engaged in routine tasks training its own personnel and other Marines for further assignments. On 10 July 1930, the designation of the regiment was changed to its present, permanent title of 1st Marines by a Corps-wide redesignation of units.<57> On 1 November 1931, the 1st Marines, as a regiment, was disbanded. A large part of its personnel joined the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, Expeditionary Force organized at Quantico the same date. On 11 January 1932, the battalion, less one company which remained at Quantico, embarked aboard the USS NORTHLAND for training maneuvers. It sailed via the Panama Canal to the west coast stopping en route at various coastal cities. By June, the battalion was engaged in short-range battle practice aboard the USS ARKANSAS off San Diego, California. On 1 November, the Battalion was redesignated the 1st Separate Training Battalion, USS ARKANSAS, and the term "1st Marines" disappeared from the active duty lists until World War II again brought its colors to the fore.<58> World War II During the years following World War I, the attention of the Marine Corps focused on the probability that future actions would require greater emphasis on the offensive phase of the advance base concept. In the reallocation of territory after World War I, the Japanese had received the former German island possessions in the central Pacific. These islands, with intensive fortification, would become serious barriers to the advance of the United States Fleet across the Pacific.<59> 13 The 1st Marines was again organized at Culebra, Puerto Rico, on 1 February 1941, by putting together parts of the 5th and 7th Marines.<60> The regiment, now part of the 1st Marine Division, participated in maneuvers at Culebra indoctrinating recently called up reservists, who had made possible the rebirth of the 1st Marines. In May, it was back in the United States, and in June and July, it was training intensively in maneuvers off New River, North Carolina, where the Marine Corps had acquired the land later to be known as Camp Lejeune. The men of the 1st Marines made life at Tent City as comfortable as time and materials would permit. Training was the order of the day with the Marines building their own mock-ups of ships' hulls as well as their combat training ranges.<61> In February 1942, the 1st Marines was brought up to full strength. With little time to integrate the newly joined officers and men, the regiment was off to combat in a few weeks. Under the command of Colonel Clifton B. Cates (19th Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1948-1952), it moved to the west coast, and on 22 June, sailed as part of the second echelon of the 1st Marine Division from San Francisco to New Zealand. With only a few days ashore, the regiment left New Zealand on 22 July and sailed with the division for Koro, Fiji Island, to rehearse for the Guadalcanal Operation.<62> On 31 July, the 1st Marines sailed for Guadalcanal as part of the 1st Marine Division to launch the first land offensive of the Pacific War. On 7 August, it landed on the island, following the seizure of a beachhead by the 5th Marines. By the end of the first day, the 1st Marines had seized the airfield and the east bank of the Ilu River (thought at the time to be the Tenaru). Other units progressed equally well, but on the beach it was a different story. Unloading was difficult and slow, and Japanese air seized its opportunity. The USS GEORGE F. ELLIOTT was set afire, and with it went most of the supplies of the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines. In fear of further attacks, the transports shortly withdrew, and the division was left with only about half of its supplies and equipment ashore. The 1st Marines manned a 600-yard stretch of the Guadalcanal perimeter along the banks of the Ilu. On 19 August, a company-strength patrol forward of this position surprised a 34 man Japanese patrol and, in a short fire fight, killed 31 of the enemy. Most of the latter were officers, which indicated the Japanese were planning an attack.<63> In the early morning of 21 August, a force of 200 Japanese, with more following, burst across the sand spit at the mouth of the Ilu into the positions of the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines.<64> Running into a single strand of barbed wire, the wave of enemy was momentarily stopped. Small-arms fire and 37mm cannister took a murderous toll. Assisted by artillery, tanks, and air, the 1st Marines cleaned out the entire force of Japanese taking 15 prisoners, but leaving 600-700 of Japan's finest troops dead 14 in the vicinity of the regiment's positions. This indoctrination in blood which the Japanese offered the Marines was only a taste of what was to come. Accepting their success with typical Marine stoicism, the men of the Regiment maintained a continual alert, patrolling and improving their positions, and waiting to see where the enemy would strike next. They didn't have long to wait, for on the night of 13-14 September, the enemy launched a strong attack from the south against the 1st Raider Battalion and the Parachute Battalion, which occupied positions along the ridge south of the airfield (later known as Bloody Ridge). As part of this attack, in what Colonel Cates termed a "holding attack," a drive was made against the positions of the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines. Once again the Japanese were repulsed, leaving 200 dead in the wire and field in front of the 1st Marines' positions.<65> Following this action, the perimeter was reorganized to present a tighter defensive position in preparation for the next enemy attack. The 1st Marines retained the responsibility for the east side of the perimeter, an area from the mouth of the Ilu River inland to a point beyond the former right flank. Later, with more troops available, the perimeter was again reorganized, with the regiment occupying a 3,500 yard stretch of jungle from the Lunga River west to the inland flank. After minor probing punctuated by sporadic artillery and mortar fire, the Japanese hit the Marine lines during the latter part of October to again be repulsed with a loss of 12 tanks and some 600 troops in the 1st Marines' sector. The regiment, now well versed in jungle warfare and the techniques of the Japanese, waited for the enemy to reveal his intentions. In December, after Army troops took over, the 1st Marines made preparations for leaving Guadalcanal, and by 12 January 1943, with combat over for a time, it was in Melbourne, Australia. On 4 October, the regiment, less its 3d Battalion, sailed for Goodenough Island. By the 25th, with the 3d Battalion again present, the 1st began small unit training, and by 1 December, it was again ready for combat. On 25 December, under the command of Colonel William J. Whaling, the regiment, less its 2d Battalion, sailed to Cape Gloucester. The next day it landed on the heels of the assault waves and moved through the right flank of the beach-head up the coast toward the airfield, the main objective of the operation, which was secured on the 29th.<66> Meanwhile, the 2d Battalion landed on the opposite side of 15 Cape Gloucester on 26 December to block enemy escape routes on the west coast and to prevent enemy reinforcements from reaching the airfield. Shortly after midnight on 30 December, an enemy force moved up from the south and attacked the battalion's position. In this action, called the "Battle of Coffin Corner," the Marines killed nearly 100 of the enemy and forced the remainder of the Japanese to withdraw. On 11 January 1944, the battalion rejoined the regiment in the airfield area. On 20 February, B Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines returned to Cape Gloucester from reconnoitering Rooke, or Umboi Island, which lies between New Britain and New Guinea. On 11 March, the 1st Battalion of the Regiment made an unopposed landing at Linga Linga Plantation on Eleanora Bay and after a number of successful skirmishes with enemy stragglers, returned to Cape Gloucester on the 18th. On 25 April, United States Army troops took over Marine responsibilities on New Britain, and the 1st Marines left for Pavuvu in the Russell Islands. Here, the regiment attempted to rest and ready itself for the next action, but the swamp-infested, rain-soaked island had not been readied for the arrival of the division.<67> Poor food, difficult living conditions, and lack of recreation contributed to much sickness and a low morale. The limited space and shortage of equipment for amphibious training made further combat almost desirable. On 26 August, all units of the division moved to the Cape Esperance area of Guadalcanal for landing rehearsals preparatory for the assault on the Palaus Islands. On 15 September 1944, the 1st Marines, now under the command of Colonel Lewis B. Puller, headed for the shore of Peleliu as the left assault regiment of the division. The Japanese laid down a protective curtain of mortar fire covering the area from the edge of the reef to the transfer line. Some losses of personnel and landing craft occurred before the beach was reached, and as the assault force moved inland, the mortar barrage followed. Japanese antiboat guns knocked out a number of LVTs and DUKWs leaving them burning at the water's edge. The assault units of the regiment pushed inland paced by the surviving armored amphibians, which served as tanks until the Shermans could be brought in. A number of well organized strong points were overcome with the aid of flame throwers and demolitions charges. After the first day's objectives had been gained, the Japanese launched a series of counterattacks against the positions of the 1st Marines. These drives, including two with tanks, were repulsed in bitter fighting using bazookas, Sherman tanks, rocket-firing planes, and even a captured Japanese machine gun. 16 The regiment continued to advance against ever increasing resistance, and by the afternoon of the fourth day, it had fought its way to the rampart known as "Bloody Nose Ridge," which formed part of the perimeter of the main Japanese positions. Behind this ridge, the enemy had concentrated a number of large caliber mortars and artillery pieces which poured a heavy fire on the advancing troops and the airfield which was now being readied for Marine use. The Marines pushed into this fortified belt and for the next five days, the regiment, as part of the division, drove forward, engaging in some of the most vicious and costly fighting of the entire Pacific campaign. On 23 September, with only a a handful of its men still on their feet, the 1st Marines was relieved by Regimental Combat Team 321 of the Army's 81st Infantry Division. The Marine regiment moved to a rest area on the east coast, and on the last days of the month, it's weary troops boarded the USS PINKNEY and USS TRYON to return to Pavuvu.<68> On Pavuvu, the regiment received replacements to fill its depleted ranks. By mid-October, the 1st Marines had begun a program of individual and small unit training, emphasizing basic fundamentals. In the months that followed, this program was expanded to include company, battalion, and regimental exercises. On 23 February 1945, the 1st Marines was again at sea, heading for Guadalcanal for maneuvers. On 7 March, a full-scale exercise was held at Cape Esperance, but a shortage of landing craft prevented the participation of the entire regimental combat team. A particular shortcoming was that the exercise had to be secured on the beach with no maneuver undertaken because of the limited space on shore. During the period 8 - 11 March, the 1st returned to Pavuvu to prepare for the largest amphibious operation it had ever been in.<69> On 15 March, the regiment sailed for Ulithi, Caroline Islands, and a week later, it left Ulithi for Okinawa as part of the 1st Marine Division, in turn a part of III Amphibious Corps of the Tenth Army.<70> On 1 April 1945, the regiment, under the command of Colonel Kenneth B. Chappell, began landing on Okinawa. This time, the 1st was in reserve and followed the assault regiments across the beach and inland. The first division objectives were seized by the night of 4 April. During the rest of the month, the 1st Marines was engaged in aggressive patrolling, continually seeking the enemy it had come to fight. On 30 April, the regiment moved southward, as part of the division, against the main enemy positions. The Japanese employed their best defensive tactics, utilizing every position and troop movement, to destroy the attacking Marines. On 4 May, for example, the enemy staged a vigorous counterattack. As 17 part of this drive, a force of about 600 Japanese attempted a night landing in the rear of the 1st Division. The 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, assisted by a platoon of the 3d Armored Amphibian Tractor Company and Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, virtually annihilated the attackers. The Marines of the 1st took their turn on the front line during the drive southward, taking advantage of the hours of darkness and reduced visibility to move up supplies and reinforcements over an ever-lengthening supply route. The Japanese tried to exploit night hours by infiltrating Marine positions. Numerous grenade and bayonet fights took place in and around foxholes. During the latter days of May, torrential downpours bogged logistics in a sea of mud and brought the fighting to a virtual stop. The Marine supply continued, as air took over much of that vital mission. The inclement weather also gave the enemy a chance to reevaluate his position, and when the 1st again moved towards Shuri Castle and its dominating heights, it found that the bulk of the Japanese had withdrawn to other positions. The Marines pushed on to seek them out. On the night of 15-16 June, the 1st Marines was reverted to a reserve role after its part in the assault was over. On 22 June, the Tenth Army announced the termination of hostilities; however, enemy stragglers and splinter groups remained scattered and hidden throughout southern Okinawa. Before base development could be carried out with any degree of security, it was necessary that the last enemy be eliminated. Accordingly, the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions were ordered to carry out coordinated mopping up operations within III Amphibious Corps boundaries. To prevent enemy remnants from escaping to the north during this drive, the 1st Marines was ordered to establish a blocking line from the Kokuba Gawa estuary east along the Naha-Yonabaru roads to the Corps boundary. By the end of June, this operation was completed. The 1st Marines, now back at the division camp site on Motobu Peninsula, soon realized that it had seen its last action in World War II. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima on 6 August and of Nagasaki three days later was followed by the Japanese surrender request on the 14th. Invasion preparations shortly came to an end, with the 1st Marines being sent to Tientsin, China, to assist in the repatriation of Japanese troops in North China.<71> The regiment arrived at Taku on 30 September and moved on to Tientsin with the mission of carrying out the provisions of the surrender and maintaining order in the Tientsin area. Here, it guarded property and rounded up Japanese repatriates. 18 These months in China were filled with the problem of keeping aloof from the power struggle going on between the Chinese Nationalists and Communists. There were no incidents which involved the exchange of shots. Typical of these was that of 6 October 1945. A rifle platoon of the regiment was guarding an engineer group which was attempting to remove roadblocks on the Tientsin-Peking highway. About 22 miles north of Tientsin, the group was fired on by an estimated 40 to 50 troops. Three casualties were sustained by the Marines, and at least one of the attackers was believed hit. Friendly Chinese farmers in the area indicated that bands of Communists were operating in the locality. A week later, when crowds of Chinese attacked Japanese civilians in Tientsin, riot squads of the 1st Marines rescued the Japanese and gave warning to the local authorities to maintain order or the Marines would.<72> During the repatriation of Japanese troops from China, the 1st Marines furnished guards on the LSTs operating out of Tientsin-Tangku Harbor. Many of the regiment's Marines took their turn serving as guards riding the railways to prevent the theft of rolling stock and to protect bridges. In early 1946, as part of a general reassignment of area responsibilities, the 1st Marines was charged with the security of the area between Langfang and Tientsin's East Station which included a large part of the international concession where corps and division service and support troops were headquartered. The 2d Battalion of the regiment was at Peiping, with one of its companies providing security for MAG 24's installations at South Field.<73> During the summer, incidents between the Marines and Communist bands continued. The desire to remain neutral and the diminution in force necessitated a reduction in the division's areas of responsibility. On 20 May 1947, as part of the strength reduction, the 1st Marines was reorganized into two battalions without a regimental headquarters.<74> During the summer of 1947, while still continuing extensive training, the regiment prepared to leave China. On 20 September, the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, reinforced as a BLT, made a full-scale landing near Tsingtao with simulated naval gunfire support and overhead cover by Marine air. On 31 October, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, was disbanded, and the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, was redesignated 1st Marines, Fleet Marine Force, Western Pacific.<75> During this period, the 1st Marines was at BLT strength in keeping with Marine Corps budgetary restrictions. With the collapse of the Nationalist Chinese forces imminent, the situation became hectic. Plans for the withdrawal of FMFWesPac were kept current. Throughout the winter of 1947-1948, garrison 19 life went on as usual despite the ever increasing friction with the Communists. To culminate the training that winter, all companies of the 1st Marines were air-lifted in frequent deployment practices, and in June, landings were made in conjunction with naval amphibious forces. By now, Chinese Communist advances were beginning to threaten United States civilians in North China. Warnings were sent out to evacuate all dependents and American nationals desiring to leave. The Marines were alerted to guard American lives, but it was nearly impossible to guard property. By December, all dependents were on their way to safety, and most civilians who wanted to leave had been evacuated. In January 1949, Tientsin and Peiping fell to the Communists, and on the 21st of the month, the regiment was alerted to leave China. In February, it returned to the United States to rejoin the 1st Marine Division at Camp Pendleton, California.<76> For the time, the order of the day for the Marines of the regiment was once again getting reacquainted with the country for which it had been fighting or ready to fight for nearly seven years. After a few months at Camp Pendleton, the 1st Marines was disbanded on 1 October 1949.<77) By now, the Marine Corps had established a tradition of being able to provide skilled forces to meet emergency situations on short notice. On 2 July 1950, when the call for help came from Korea, the Marines answered by sending a brigade to the Far East within three weeks. This force was soon bolstered to a full division, and as a part of this new 1st Marine Division, the 1st Marines again came into existence on 4 August 1950 by redesignation of the 2d Marines, 2d Marine Division.<78> On 2 September, the regiment, under the command of Colonel Lewis B. Puller, arrived at Kobe, Japan. In a few short weeks, the 1st Marines had been reborn, brought up to combat strength, and carried half way around the world. Now, it had to combat load on LSTs with tentative factors as guidelines, since combat plans were still being formulated. These weren't the only problems, for enemy intelligence and information on beach conditions in the objective area were practically nonexistent. The brief speculative studies and inadequate photos of the area were available to each unit for only a few hours.<79> Time had permitted only the briefest training above the company level. And yet, in spite of these shortcomings, the 1st Marines was soon to embark on one of the most famous amphibious assaults in modern history. On 15 September 1950, the regiment landed at Inchon as an assault regiment of the 1st Marine Division. Landing on the south side of Inchon harbor, it advanced rapidly inland, seizing its assigned objectives by night fall, in spite of the rain squalls and smoke, which by H-Hour had blotted out Beach BLUE to all but the first three waves. 20 On the following day, Inchon was cleared, and the 1st Marines, advancing towards Seoul, helped to take Sosa and Yongdung-po. By the afternoon of the 24th, it had taken Hill 79, its first objective in Seoul, and on it hoisted the Stars and Stripes. The regiment continued its drive through the South Korean capital for another three days, and by the afternoon of the 27th, the city had been won. On the 28th, the regiment moved out to seize its final objective, the high ground to the northeast of Seoul. The 3d Battalion, however, remained in the city to help guard the streets while General Douglas MacArthur was present for the liberation ceremonies. On 7 October, the regiment was relieved of its blocking mission on the successfully taken high ground to the north of Seoul and moved to Ascom City to prepare for the assault on Wonsan. The 1st Marines as part of the 1st Marine Division and X Corps was scheduled to make an assault landing at Wonsan, on the east coast. After establishing a beachhead, the Corps was to advance westward through the Pyongyang-Wonsan corridor and link up with General Walker's army in order to trap North Korean troops falling back from the south.<80> However, when Wonsan fell to the rapidly advancing South Koreans, the regiment made an administrative landing and took up blocking positions in the area. By 19 November, the 1st was in position near Chigyong, about six miles southwest of Hamhung. When Chinese Communist forces poured across the Yalu, the United Nations unrestricted drive northward was interrupted. The situation deteriorated rapidly, and the 1st Marines was ordered to keep open the main supply road of the 1st Marine Division. The 1st Battalion moved to Chinhung-ni to guard the Division railhead. On the 24th, the 2d Battalion moved to Koto-ri, and on the 26th, the 3d Battalion took up positions at Hagaru-ri. By the last four days in November, the positions at Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri were under constant attack from large numbers of Chinese Communist troops. By 3 December, the first elements of the 5th and 7th Marines began arriving within the Hagaru perimeter after their breakout from Yudam-ni. Reunited within the perimeter, the Division was supplied by air, and more than 4,000 casualties were evacuated by the same means. On the 6th, the Division column began its breakout from Hagaru to the south, cutting its way through to Koto-ri, where more casualties were air-evacuated. From Koto-ri to Chinhung-ni the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 1st Marines acted as rear guard for the Division and continuously beat off fanatical enemy attacks. Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, fought its way northward from Chinhung-ni and, on 8 November, was in position guarding the leading elements of the Division train as they began entering the Chinhung-ni perimeter. On 10 December, the last elements of the 1st Marines left the Koto-ri sector, 21 and in succeeding order, relieved elements of the 7th Marines as rear guards for the Division train. It was not until the afternoon of 11 December that the last elements of the Division cleared the railhead at Chinhung-ni. The final firefight of the breakout occurred near Sudong, when the 1st Marines drove through an ambush. By midnight, all units had reached assembly areas in the Hungnam-Hamhung area, and the breakout was over. By 18 December, the regiment was back at Pusan where it went into position north of Masan as part of the 1st Marine Division in Eighth Army reserve. Here, it rested and reorganized for three weeks. A new Chinese Communist offensive, which was to penetrate south of Seoul, with Pusan its intended objective, began after dark on the night of 31 December 1950.<81> As its part in slowing enemy progress, the 1st Marines left Masan on 10 January for the Pohang-Andong area to aid in neutralizing a North Korean guerrilla division which had infiltrated the area. The regiment, now reinforced, concentrated chiefly at Andong to secure the city and its two airfields, with one of its battalions at Uisong to protect the main service road. The next month was spent in extensive patrolling to round up the guerrillas of the area. On 11 February 1951, the Chinese again attacked, this time on the central front. The 1st Marines, as part of the 1st Marine Division was ordered to Chungju to participate in Operation KILLER, a limited Eighth Army offensive. Operation RIPPER came next as General Matthew Ridgway continued his strategy of keeping the enemy off-balance during preparations for a new Chinese counteroffensive. On 7 March, the 1st Marines, with the 7th Marines on its left, began the attack, and within five days, it had progressed to Hongchon. Continuing the attack on the 15th, the regiment seized all its objectives and reached the vicinity of Wongo-ri in two weeks. Upon the launching of still another Chinese counteroffensive on the 22d, the 1st Marines was rushed into blocking positions on the left front of the 1st Marine Division, where the collapse of the 6th ROK Division had left a huge gap. Manning strong points, the regiment employed its air and artillery support in conjunction with its organic weapons in perhaps the most desperate fighting it had yet experienced. It met and blunted a series of Chinese attacks on Horseshoe Ridge and Hill 902, thereby enabling the division to withdraw to more concentrated positions. By 30 April, the 1st Marines was in position in the vicinity of Yangdogwon-ni patrolling and readying itself for further enemy aggression. On 12 May, the regiment again headed northward. For the next two weeks, it pushed slowly forward against a delaying enemy, and by the 24th, its assault battalions had reached a 22 line about five and one-half miles north of Sanggo-ri, where it was again relieved. On 2 June, the 1st Marines moved against the Chinese in the vicinity of Yanggu on the eastern tip of the Hwach'on Reservoir.<82> The drive during the rest of the month resulted in the virtual destruction of the Sixth North Korean Division. During the last two weeks in June and the first part of July, the 1st Marines strengthened, consolidated, and patrolled its zone, a five-mile front line sector about five and one-half miles southwest of the Punchbowl.(83) On 16 July, the regiment was again returned to a reserve role. After nearly two months of rest, reorganization, and training, the 1st relieved the 7th Marines east of the Punchbowl on 12 September. The fighting at this stage was as bitter as any faced by the Marines in Korea, but by the end of the month, the main line of resistance had been consolidated on a favorable five-mile front in the vicinity of Changhan-Sachon-ni. On 11 November, the regiment reverted to 1st Marine Division reserve at Mago-ri. An historical event in the use of the helicopter occurred in this move when for the first time an entire battalion (the 2d) was relieved by air from front line positions. Back on the line by 11 December, the 1st Marines continued to patrol and improve its positions. On 18 February 1952, the regiment was relieved by the 5th Marines and moved into 1st Marine Division reserve in the vicinity or Imje. A month later, it moved by sea around Korea to Inchon, and by 24 March, it occupied part of the division front near Panmunjom. April and May were spent in occupying and improving the MLR. When again in reserve near Inchon, the 1st Marines engaged in a period of concentrated amphibious training, including transport by helicopter. On 27 July, the 1st was once more on the line. During this period, it was charged with the organization of the "Rescue Task Force" for the United Nations Truce Team at Panmunjom. The Rescue Task Force, consisting of a reinforced rifle company, including tank and artillery support, rendezvoused near Panmunjom each time the Truce Teams were in session prepared to move in quickly to move the United Nations delegation to safety upon the prearranged signal "Need Aid." In August 1952, action along the 1st Marine Division forward position was more intense than in any previous period since the Marines arrived on the Western Front. The most persistent efforts of the enemy were centered around Bunker and Siberia Hills in the sector of the 1st Marines. After many heavy fire-fights, Marines of the 1st helped take Bunker Hill. During its remaining stay on the front, the regiment continued to resist enemy probes and effectively held its position. 23 During the front line duty of the 1st Marines from November 1952 to January 1953, enemy action was light, with no large-scale attacks developing. The regiment patrolled, consolidated, and strengthened its positions. Night patrols were sent out, ambushes were laid, and counterreconnaissance activities were performed. By 10 February, the 1st was again on the line after a brief rest. A quiet five weeks was followed by renewed enemy activity all along the line during the period 18-29 March. In the 1st Marines sector, the enemy attacked positions on Hills Hedy, Bunker, Esther, Dagmar, and Kate, but each attack was repulsed, and the enemy retired to his original positions, sustaining heavy casualties. On 5 May, the regiment reverted to the reserve where it remained throughout most of the summer. On 27 July, the Korean War officially ended, but the alert continued. During September, the 1st Marines, still in reserve, maintained one battalion in constant readiness to move into the Demilitarized Zone to repel any force which might attempt to recover or molest nonrepatriate prisoners of war and to cover the evacuation of nonrepatriates. By 9 October, the regiment was again on the front, manning the center of the Division zone. In January 1954, it assisted in the return of nonrepatriate prisoners of war to the United Nations. On 27 February, it again took up a reserve role. From 25-30 April, the 1st Marines participated in a regimental landing team exercise (RLT-LEX). From 1-10 May, it conducted a more extensive RLT-LEX which included two landings on the beaches of Sokcho-ri. During the next six months, the regiment continued its mission, off and on the MLR, ever alert for whatever might happen. Meanwhile, training was conducted as time permitted. Small unit training was stressed as it was seldom possible to spare more than a company at a time from the primary mission. But, through careful planning, often involving intricate reliefs of MLR positions, battalions occasionally engaged in training on that level. Command post exercises (CPXs), involving the command and staff and communications personnel, were held quite frequently. The culmination of the summer's training was a five-day exercise by the entire regiment, including a landing on the island of Tokckok-to. During December and extending into the following months, the 1st participated in an extensive refurbishing of the MLR. On 17 March 1955, the 1st Marines was relieved of its MLR responsibilities for the last time, and on 1 and 3 April, its two echelons sailed for the United States. 24 The regiment arrived home between 16-22 April, after having spent nearly 12 of the preceding 13 years facing an actual or potential enemy. To its colors it had added ten streamers and three Presidential Unit Citations earned through the bitter struggles of Korea. For nearly six decades, war and threats of war had found the 1st Marines ready to do its part in preserving the American way of life. After a brief pause to permit their Marines considerable leave and liberty, units of the regiment embarked on another training cycle designed to maintain their tradition of readiness. During the next few years, exercises from small unit level to that of a division/wing force was conducted frequently. Marines of the 1st took part in landings by helicopter and by landing craft over Pendleton's beaches, under went training at Bridgeport's Cold Weather Training Center, and have experienced the stifling heat of the Mojave Desert. New weapons were phased into the various units of the regiment, while much emphasis has been placed on night operations and the various ramifications of counterguerrilla combat.<84> On 17 March 1959, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, initiated the transplacement program, currently in effect, which calls for organizing and training a unit, such as an infantry battalion, at Camp Pendleton, and then moving the trained unit to Okinawa, where it becomes a unit of the 3d Marine Division. In turn, a similar sized unit from that division returned to Pendleton, where, over a period of months, it was re-organized and trained to await its turn for a tour overseas. During the next three and a half years, the regiment participated in numerous training exercises at sea and in the deserts of California. A training heli-lift operation held in early October 1962 became the rehearsal for a real crisis which developed two weeks later. On 15 October 1962, aerial photographs were analyzed and the presence of strategic missiles and sites in Cuba was indicated. After a quarantine of Cuba was ordered by the President, the units which were to participate in the blockade were alerted. At 1100 on 19 October, Major General Herman Nickerson, Commanding General, 1st Marine Division, ordered Lieutenant Colonel William Geftman, Commanding Officer, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines to prepare for deployment. The 2d Battalion was the Division's Ready BLT, so that by 2100, only 10 hours after receiving the order, all units of the battalion were ready for airlift. It was not until Saturday, 20 October, that the order was given to move out and the Marines moved by bus to El Toro and the waiting airplanes. Five and a half hours later, on Sunday the 21st, the first elements of the battalion were at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, ready to be transported to their positions along the barrier separating 25 the base from Cuban territory. Less than an hour after arriving, the men of 2/1 were in their places on the defense lines. <85> Guantanamo had been reinforced and the order to activate the 5th MEB, commanded by Brigadier General William T. Fairbourn, had been issued before most of the American people were aware that the crisis had developed. On 22 October, President Kennedy told the nation of the grave danger to its security poised only 90 miles from Florida. He announced the ultimatum which he had presented to the Soviets; the missiles would be dismantled and removed from Cuba, meanwhile the United States would maintain a quarantine of the island. With the activation order, the 1st and 3d Battalions of the 1st Marines began organizing for deployment with the 5th MEB. On the 26th, only 96 hours after being activated, the MEB began departing San Diego and Del Mar, California; the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, on board the USS HENRICO and 3/1 on board the USS IWO JIMA. At Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, the brigade reorganized and came under the operational control of CinCLant, took on additional support personnel and supplies, and in some instances tranferred from one ship to another. Companies C and D, 1/1, left the USS HENRICO and sailed from Panama on board the USS BEXAR on 7 November.<86> For a month, the 5th MEB helped to maintain the quarantine of Cuba within the "interception area" specified as a 500-mile radius centered on Havana.<87> The dismantling of the missile sites by the Russians brought about the order to return to Camp Pendleton. On 1 December, 1/1 and 3/1, on board the USS BEXAR, BAYFIELD, and the OKANAGAN, arrived at Guantanamo, and departed the next day with the 2d Battalion on board. The regiment arrived at Camp Pendleton on 14 December 1962.<88> The Cuban Crisis was the first direct confrontation of the United States and Russia since both nations developed nuclear weapons and the capability to deliver them. As a result of this confrontation, Khrushchev backed down under pressure, and the prestige of the United States was greatly enhanced. In this crisis, the Marines showed their ability to respond quickly in an emergency. As Marine Corps Commandant David M. Shoup stated on an inspection trip to Guantanamo, "When the government said get in, we got in in a hurry...."<89> Following the Cuban Crisis, the regiment continued to maintain a state of readiness through training exercises and the transplacement program with the 3d Division in Okinawa until the summer of 1965 when the regiment was ordered to join the III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF) in Vietnam. After the landing of the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade 26 in South Vietnam in March 1965, the Marine Corps continued to build up its force there as the United States increased its effort to rid the country of the Viet Cong supported by North Vietnam in a war of "national liberation." On 28 July, President Johnson announced that the United States would increase its strength in Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000 men "almost immediately." In August, the 1st Marines began deployment to the III MAF. The 1st Battalion sailed from Long Beach, California on 9 August and landed at Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam (RVN), on the 25th. The 2d Battalion departed San Diego the 10th of August and sailed to Okinawa, from which it sailed for two months of duty in the vicinity of the Philippine Islands. On 22 November, the battalion disembarked at Hue-Phu Bai, RVN. The Regimental Headquarters, under the command of Colonel Byron B. Mitchell, landed at Chu Lai, RVN, on 16 January 1966. There it came under the operational control of the 3d Division until 28 March 1966, when it returned to the control of the 1st Division. Meanwhile, the 3d Battalion had departed Long Beach, California on 23 August and had arrived at Okinawa, where it spent several months in training before embarking as a BLT on 13 January 1966. The battalion landed in the Chu Lai area on 28 January.<90> Only two weeks after its arrival in-country, the 2d Battalion took part in an operation which was to bring the unit a Navy Unit Commendation streamer. In a valley 30 miles south of Da Nang, the Viet Cong (VC) were known to be gathering in force for an attack on Que Son. Intelligence reports showed that the 1st Viet Cong Regiment, 3 separate VC battalions, and several companies and smaller units were preparing for battle. The 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, joined 2/7, 3/3, and four ARVN battalions in Operation HARVEST MOON which continued from 8 December to 20 December 1965, resulting in more than 400 confirmed VC killed. At the end of the operation, the valley was under government control for the first time in many years.<91> In the months that followed, units organic to the regiment participated in many operations including Operations UTAH, IOWA and CHEYENNE I and II. During this time numerous company-sized search and destroy missions and small unit patrols were also conducted in its Tactical Area of Responsibility (TAOR). In July 1966, the regiment took part in another well-known operation, HASTINGS, a search and destroy operation north of Hue. The operation began with a reconnaissance mission by 2/1 and a reconnaissance company in response to intelligence reports that a North Vietnamese division was south of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The operation expanded, and on the 16th, 1/1 was lifted to Dong Ha to participate in it. More than 800 enemy troops were killed during HASTINGS. The regiment remained in the Da Nang vicinity during the 27 rest of 1966 and much of 1967 continuing to conduct operations against the VC. On 5 October 1967, the 1st and 2d Battalions, with the Regimental Headquarters, moved northward as the Marines in that area met heavy enemy resistance close to the DMZ. The new TAOR assigned to the regiment was in the Quang Tri City area. The first major action in this TAOR was Operation MEDINA which began on the 11th, only six days after the regiment arrived, and concluded on 20 October.<92> In addition to operations directed against organized armed forces, the regiment was called upon to direct civic action operations in an effort to win the support of the rural population for the government of South Vietnam. The Marines attempted to gain the confidence of the people and to win their loyalty. During its first few months in Vietnam, the regiment began a program which has expanded as its TAOR and resources have increased. One of the first projects was to provide medical treatment for the people. In some areas, many of the people had never seen a doctor. Clinics were set up and the people were treated and were given soap and told how to use it. Often, search and destroy missions provided the means to bring medical care to the local population Search and destroy missions were followed at other times by a psychological warfare approach which later became known as County Fair. While a village was searched and its population screened for possible VC, the residents were shown movies, entertained by music and games, given medical treatment, and were told about the government and its programs. As the Marines came to know the country, they were able to see the need for helping the Vietnamese improve their living conditions. With the aid of Marines, schools were built in many villages and playgrounds were constructed for the children. Roads and bridges which enabled the people to communicate with the outside had often been destroyed by the VC and Marines helped the people rebuild these after wresting an area away from the VC. Marines have also constructed many new bridges and have carried on an extensive well-building program. The 1st Marines continue to wage the psychological battle against the VC in the villages and homes of the civilians just as they continue to wage the military war in the battlefield. 28 NOTES (1) Prior to September 1900, there was wide disparity concerning the proper title of the Marine Philippine Force. Brigadier General Commandant Charles Heywood, in his Annual Report for 1900, cites the Philippine Force as "the First Regiment of Marines." CMC, "Annual Report"...in "Report of the Secretary of the Navy, 1900" (Washington, 1900), pp. 1102, 1116, and 1129, hereafter "CMC Report" with year. (2) "History of U. S. Marine Corps Activities at Subic Bay, P. I., 1899-1955" (MS, HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC), hereafter "Subic Bay". (3) Ernest H. Giusti, "Early Days of the 1st Marines, 1899-1909" --- Marine Corps Historical Reference Series No. 5 (1st Revision, 1959) (HistBr, G-3, HQMC), p. 3. (Unless otherwise noted, the following account is based on this work). (4) "Subic Bay", p. 7. From the time of his arrival in the Philippines in April 1899, Colonel Pope called his command "Manila Battalion." "CMC Report", 1899, p. 931. Lieutenant Colonel Elliott, succeeding Pope as the Commanding Officer of the Philippine Force on 8 October 1899, called his command "Marine Brigade," although it was not until after September 1900 that official orders were promulgated organizing the brigade. "CMC Report", 1899, pp. 920-921. Muster Rolls of the 1st Regiment commence 1 January 1900, which date is the birth date of the 1st Regiment. Muster Rolls, 1st Regiment, Jan00 (Unit Diary Section, Personnel Department, HQMC), hereafter "Muster Rolls", with unit, month, and year. (5) "CMC Report", 1900, p. 1104. (6) "Subic Bay", p. 8ff. (7) Clyde H. Metcalf, "A History of the United States Marine Corps" (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939), p. 280ff, hereafter Metcalf, "USMC History". (8) "CMC Report", 1900, pp. 1148-1149. (9) Ibid., p. 1150ff. (10) "CMC Report", 1901, p. 1277. (11) Ibid., p. 1278; Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 285. (12) "Subic Bay", p. 11. (13) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Sep00 29 (14) Joel D. Thacker, "Stand Gentlemen, He Served on Samar!," Mar45 (MS, HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC). (15) "CMC Report", 1902, p. 1266. (16) General Board endorsement on CinCAF ltr No. 60-D dtd 2May03 to SecNav (General Board Files, No. 432, Naval History Division). (17) "CMC Report", 1904, p. 1188. (18) "CMC Report", 1905, p. 1233. (19) "Subic Bay", p. 33. (20) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Apr14. (See Appendix A to determine if particular "1st Regiments" were disbanded or reorganized). (21) "CMC Report", 1904, p. 19. During the same years that a 1st Regiment was stationed in the Philippines, other regiments were organized from time to time for service in Latin America. The existence of two 1st Regiments at the same time resulted from a Marine Corps policy to form provisional troop units for expeditionary service as the need arose. Provisional regiments organized under this policy were numbered consecutively beginning with the 1st, regardless of the existence of the 1st Regiment in the Philippines. (22) Clyde A. Metcalf, "American Intervention in Panama" (MS, Panama file, HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC) p. 17. (23) On 20-21 June 1908, an Expeditionary Regiment joined the permanent battalion at Camp Elliott to assure a peaceful election in the Canal Zone. On 11 December 1909, an Expeditionary Brigade of two regiments served in Panamanian waters. "CMC Report", 1908 and 1909. It cannot be determined if these regiments were designated "1st." Only those regiments designated "1st" or "first" in muster rolls and unit diaries are chronologically treated herein as of date of activation. (24) No organization date for this regiment is specifically reported in the muster rolls, but most officers reported on 22 September with the first muster roll being that of October 1906. "Muster Rolls", 1st Expeditionary Regiment, Oct06. (25) Thomas A. Bailey, "A Diplomatic History of the American People" (New York: F. S. Crofts & Co., 1947), p. 549. (26) "CMC Report", 1906, p. 318. 30 (27) Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 322. (28) "CMC Report", 1910, p. 803. (29) "CMC Report", 1911, p,. 530. (30) "Army and Navy Journal", Vol. 48 (1910-1911), No. 41 (19 June 1911), p. 1241. (31) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jun11. (32) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Aug-Sep11. (33) Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 326. (34) "Muster Rolls", 1st Provisional Regiment, Aug12. (35) Metcalf, "op. cit.", pp. 415-416; "Muster Rolls", 1st Provisional Regiment, Aug12-Jan13. (36) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Feb-May13. (37) "CMC Report", 1913, p. 543; "Muster Rolls", 1st Advance Base Regiment, Jul13. This regiment was designed to be made up of specialists for fixed defense activities of a permanent advance base force. The 2d Advance Base Regiment was to be composed of infantry and artillery for mobile defense service by the force. (38) "CMC Report", 1914, p. 470ff. With the formation of this brigade the Advance Base Force came into being. It was composed of two permanently organized regiments, each tailored to its specific part in the advance base force concept. At the same time, numerical designations for companies were adopted to alleviate the problem of having more than one Company A, for example, in any one expeditionary force. (39) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Feb14. (40) Kenneth W. Condit and Edwin T. Turnbladh, "Hold High the Torch, A History of the 4th Marines" (Washington: HistBr, G-3 ,HQMC, 1960), p. 12. (41) "CMC Report", 1914, p. 470ff. (42) "CMC Report", 1915, p. 662. (43) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Dec14. (44) Dana G. Munro, "The United States and the Caribbean Area" (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1941), p. 151. 31 (45) "CMC Report", 1915, p. 662. (46) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jul16. (47) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Dec16. (48) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jan17; "CMC Report", 1917, p. 840. (49) Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 456. (50) Jeter A. Isely and Philip A. Crowl, "The U. S. Marines and Amphibious War" (Princeton: The Princeton University Press, 1951), p. 23. (51) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Nov-Dec18; Metcalf, "USMC History", p. 337. (52) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jun19-Apr22. (53) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Aug22. (54) Metcalf, "USMC History", pp. 368-369. (55) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Jul24. (56) "Muster Rolls", 1st Regiment, Mar25. (57) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Jul30. (58) "Muster Rolls", 1st Battalion, 1st Marine:, Nov31-Nov32. (59) LtCol Frank O. Hough, USMCR, Maj Verle E. Ludwig, USMC, and Henry I. Shaw, Jr., "Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, History of U. S. Marine Corps Operations World War II", Vol. I (Washington: HistBr, G-3 HQMC, 1959) , p. 10, is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account. (60) George McMillan, "The Old Breed, A History of the First Marine Division in War II" (Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1949) , p. 6, hereafter McMillan, "The Old Breed". (61) Ibid., p. 11. (62) Ibid., p. 22. (63) Ibid., p. 56. (64) John L. Zimmerman "The Guadalcanal Campaign" (Washington: HistDiv, HQMC, 1949) p. 65ff., hereafter Zimmerman, "Guadalcanal". 32 (65) Zimmerman, "Guadalcanal", p. 84ff. (66) LtCol Frank O. Rough and Maj John A. Crown, "The Campaign of New Britain" (Washington: HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1952), p. 54, is unless otherwise cited, the basis or the account of the 1st Marines on New Britain. (67) Maj Frank O. Hough, "The Assault on Peleliu" (Washington: HistDiv, HQMC, 1950), p. 25ff, is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account of the 1st Marines on Peleliu. (68) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Oct44. (69) McMillan, "The Old Breed", pp. 352-353. (70) Maj Chas. S. Nichols, Jr., and Henry I. Shaw, Jr., "Okinawa: Victors in the Pacific" (Washington: HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1955), pp. 18-19, is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account of the 1st Marines on Okinawa. (71) Henry I. Shaw, Jr., "North China Marines" (MS, HistBr, G-3, HQMC), is unless otherwise cited, the source of the following account of the 1st Marines in China. (72) McMillan, "The Old Breed", p. 432ff. (73) 1st Marine Division War Diary, Apr46 (HistBr, G-3, HQMC). (74) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, May47. (75) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Oct47. (76) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Feb49. (77) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Oct49. (78) "Muster Rolls", 1st Marines, Aug50. (79) Lynn Montross and Capt Nicholas A. Canzona, "The Inchon-Seoul Operation --- U. S. Marine Operations in Korea, 1950-1953", Vol. II (Washington: HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1955), p. 114, is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account. (80) Lynn Montross and Capt Nicholas A. Canzona, "The Chosin Reservoir Campaign --- U. S. Marine Operations in Korea, 1950-1953", Vol. III (Washington: HistBr, G-3, HQMC, 1959), p. 9, is unless otherwise cited, the basis or the following account. 33 (81) Lynn Montross, "East Korea, 1951-1952" (MS, HistBr, G-3 HQMC), p. III:13, is unless otherwise cited, the basis of the following account. (82) John Miller, Jr., "et. al.", "Korea, 1951 - 1953" (Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1958), p. 110. (83) 1st Marines Historical Diary, Jun-Jul51, (HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC). (84) Exercise Reference (Exercise Schedules and Lists), HistBr, G-3 Archives, HQMC, presents exercises participated in by 1st Marines in recent years. Specific exercises are not commented on herein because of classification restrictions. (85) LCpl Don Floyd, "The 2d Bn, 1st Marines Take Position at Guantanamo Bay," "Pendleton Scout", 14Dec62, pp.4-5. (86) MSgt Walter Stewart, "50 Days with the MEB," "Pendleton Scout", 21Dec62, pp. 7-10. (87) Department of Defense, "Chronology of the Cuban Crisis", (Washington, 1962), p. 15. (88) Unit Diary, Dec62. (89) "Newsweek", vol. LX, no. 22, 26Nov 62, p. 18. (90) Unit diaries, 1965-1966. (91) Sgt Frank Beardsley, "Harvest Moon," "Leatherneck", vol I, no. 4, Apr66, pp. 38-43. (92) Commanding Officer, 1st Marines, ltr to CMC, dtd 26Oct67, Subj: Updating "A Brief History of the 1st Marines" (Unit Files, Historical Branch, HQMC). 34 APPENDIX A COMMANDING OFFICERS, 1ST MARINES, 1900-1967 Since 1900 there have been a number of regimental organizations in the Marine Corps bearing the designation "First." The list that follows enumerates the commanding officers of all of these regiments entered chronologically by the date of activation of the particular regiment. A series of asterisks have been used at the end of particular rosters to indicate total disbandment of a regiment. Absence of asterisks indicates a redesignation. 1st Regiment, Marines NOTE: This unit was composed of the 1st, 2d, and 3d Battalions of Marines which had been in the Philippines since April, September, and December 1899, respectively. *LtCol George F. Elliott 1 Jan 1900 - 6 Jan 1900 Col Robert L. Meade 7 Jan 1900 - 25 Jul 1900 Maj Littleton W. T. Waller 26 Jul 1900 - 31 Jul 1900 *Maj William P. Biddle 1 Aug 1900 - 10 Sep 1900 Col Henry C. Cochrane 11 Sep 1900 - 2 Jan 1901 LtCol Mancil C. Goodrell 3 Jan 1901 - 5 May 1901 None shown *Maj William P. Biddle 31 May 1901 - 26 Jan 1902 LtCol Mancil C. Goodrell 27 Jan 1902 - 20 Jan 1903 *Maj William P. Biddle 21 Jan 1903 - 27 Jan 1903 Maj Thomas N. Wood 28 Jan 1903 - 27 Mar 1903 LtCol Otway C. Berryman 28 Mar 1903 - 18 Aug 1903 Maj Con M. Perkins 19 Aug 1903 - 25 Oct 1903 LtCol Paul StC. Murphy 26 Oct 1903 - 3 Aug 1904 Maj Joseph H. Pendleton 4 Aug 1904 - 4 Apr 1905 Maj Thomas C. Treadwell 5 Apr 1905 - 12 May 1905 Capt Frederic L . Bradman 13 May 1905 - 16 May 1905 Maj Lewis C. Lucas 17 May 1905 - 5 Jul 1905 Maj Joseph H. Pendleton 6 Jul 1905 - 30 Sep 1905 Capt Henry C. Bisset 1 Oct 1905 - 5 Nov 1905 Maj Joseph H. Pendleton 6 Nov 1905 - 26 Jan 1906 Capt Henry C. Bisset 27 Jan 1906 - 28 Feb 1906 Capt John H. A. Day 1 Mar 1906 - 31 Mar 1906 Capt Henry C. Davis 1 Apr 1906 - 30 Apr 1906 Capt George C. Reid 1 May 1906 - 31 May 1906 Capt Melville J. Shaw 1 Jun 1906 - 5 Sep 1906 Maj John T. Meyers 6 Sep 1906 - 23 Nov 1906 Capt Henry Lee 24 Nov 1906 - 9 Dec 1906 Maj John T. Meyers 10 Dec 1906 - 8 Jan 1907 Capt George C. Reid 9 Jan 1907 - 31 Jan 1907 Capt Melville J. Shaw 1 Feb 1907 - 28 Feb 1907 35 Capt George C. Reid 1 Mar 1907 - 8 Apr 1907 LtCol James E. Mahoney 9 Apr 1907 - 9 Aug 1907 Capt Melville J. Shaw 10 Aug 1907 - 17 Oct 1907 LtCol James E. Mahoney 18 Oct 1907 - 5 Apr 1908 Maj Melville J. Shaw 6 Apr 1908 - 9 Dec 1908 Capt Randolph C. Berkeley 10 Dec 1908 - 16 Jul 1909 Capt Ernest E. West 17 Jul 1909 - 23 Aug 1909 Capt Randolph C. Berkeley 24 Aug 1909 - 8 Sep 1909 Capt Thomas F. Lyons 9 Sep 1909 - 8 Nov 1909 Capt Randolph C. Berkeley 9 Nov 1909 - 26 Jan 1910 Maj Thomas C. Treadwell 27 Jan 1910 - 17 Mar 1910 Capt Randolph C. Berkeley 18 Mar 1910 - 9 May 1910 Maj Thomas C. Treadwell 10 May 1910 - 7 Dec 1910 Maj Newt H. Hall 8 Dec 1910 - 12 Mar 1911 Capt Herbert J. Hirshinger 13 Mar 1911 - 17 Apr 1911 Capt James McE. Huey 18 Apr 1911 - 8 Sep 1911 Maj Philip M. Bannon 9 Sep 1911 - 14 Oct 1912 None shown Maj Newt H. Hall 18 Oct 1912 - 15 Apr 1913 Maj Henry C. Davis 16 Apr 1913 - 19 Jan 1914 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Regiment NOTE: This unit was organized at Empire, Panama, as part of the Marine Brigade sent to stabilize the Panamanian Isthmus. *LtCol William P. Biddle 3 Jan 1904 - 25 Feb 1904 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Expeditionary Regiment NOTE: This unit was organized at Philadelphia for expeditionary duty in Cuba. *LtCol George Barnett 1 Oct 1906 - 31 Oct 1906 1st Provisional Regiment, 1st Brigade LtCol Franklin J. Moses 1 Nov 1906 - 17 Mar 1908 Maj Theodore P. Kane 18 Mar 1908 - 31 Mar 1908 LtCol Franklin J. Moses 1 Apr 1908 - 23 Jan 1909 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Regiment, 1st Provisional Brigade NOTE: This unit was organized at Philadelphia on board the USS PRAIRIE for expeditionary duty in Cuba. *Col George Barnett 8 Mar 1911 - 22 Jun 1911 * * * * * * * * * * 36 1st Provisional Regiment NOTE: This unit was organized for expeditionary duty in Cuba utilizing a cadre of the Advance Base School, Marine Barracks, Philadelphia. Col Lincoln Karmany 23 May 1912 - 6 Jun 1912 *Col George Barnett 7 Jun 1912 - 4 Aug 1912 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Provisional Regiment NOTE: This regiment was organized at Philadelphia for expeditionary duty in Nicaragua. Col Joseph H. Pendleton 21 Aug 1912 - 18 Oct 1912 LtCol Charles G. Long 19 Oct 1912 - 31 Oct 1912 Col Joseph H. Pendleton 1 Nov 1912 - 7 Dec 1912 Maj William B. McKelvy 8 Dec 1912 - 6 Jan 1913 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Regiment, 2d Provisional Brigade NOTE: This unit was organized at Philadelphia for expeditionary duty in Cuba. *Col George Barnett 20 Feb 1913 - 3 May 1913 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Advance Base Regiment NOTE: This unit was organized at Advance Base School, Marine Barracks, Philadelphia. LtCol Charles G. Long 19 May 1913 - 17 Feb 1914 1st Regiment, 1st Advance Base Brigade LtCol Charles G. Long 18 Feb 1914 - 21 Apr 1914 1st Regiment, 1st Brigade LtCol Charles G. Long 22 Apr 1914 - 5 May 1914 Col James E. Mahoney 6 May 1914 - 4 Dec 1914 LtCol Charles G. Long 5 Dec 1914 - 7 Aug 1915 Col Theodore P. Kane 8 Aug 1915 - 15 Aug 1915 Col Eli K. Cole 16 Aug 1915 - 8 May 1916 LtCol Laurence H. Moses 9 May 1916 - 24 Jun 1916 Col Eli K. Cole 25 Jun 1916 - 30 Jun 1916 37 NOTE: The 1st and 2d Regiments exchanged designations in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1 Jul 1916. Col Theodore P. Kane 1 Jul 1916 - 11 Aug 1916 Maj Hiram I. Bearss 12 Aug 1916 - 17 Oct 1916 Col Theodore P. Kane 18 Oct 1916 - 31 Oct 1916 None shown 1 Nov 1916 - 31 Dec 1916 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Regiment, Fixed Defense Force NOTE: The unit was organized at Philadelphia from companies formerly attached to the 1st Regiment disbanded at Santo Domingo City, 31 Dec 1916. Col Charles G. Long 25 Jan 1917 - 4 Sep 1917 *Col Ben H. Fuller 5 Sep 1917 - 31 Jul 1918 *BGen Ben H. Fuller 1 Aug 1918 - 30 Aug 1918 Col Thomas C. Treadwell 31 Aug 1918 - 30 Nov 1918 1st Regiment, 6th Provisional Brigade Col Thomas C. Treadwell 1 Dec 1918 - 20 Jan 1919 LtCol Edward A. Greene 21 Jan 1919 - 22 Feb 1919 Col Louis M. Gulick 23 Feb 1919 - 14 Apr 1919 LtCol Edward A. Greene 15 Apr 1919 - 28 Apr 1919 Col Charles S. Hill 29 Apr 1919 - 27 Jun 1919 1st Regiment Col Charles S. Hill 28 Jun 1919 - 6 Aug 1919 LtCol Edward A. Greene 7 Aug 1919 - 18 Sep 1919 LtCol Alexander S. Williams 19 Sep 1919 - 25 Sep 1919 Col Harry Lee 26 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920 Maj William P. Upshur 15 May 1920 - 30 Sep 1920 Capt Thomas J. Curtis 1 Oct 1920 - 17 Oct 1920 1st Regiment, 3d Brigade 1stLt Oliver T. Francis 18 Oct 1920 - 10 Nov 1920 2dLt Augustus Aiken 11 Nov 1920 - 5 Jan 1921 (Changed name to William Warren Aiken - Dec 1920) Capt Lucian W. Burnham 6 Jan 1921 - 7 May 1921 LtCol Frederic M. Wise 8 May 1921 - 11 Oct 1921 Maj Samuel P. Budd 12 Oct 1921 - 22 Oct 1921 LtCol Frederic M. Wise 23 Oct 1921 - 20 Jan 1922 Col Frederic M. Wise 21 Jan 1922 - 11 Apr 1922 Capt John F. Blanton 12 Apr 1922 - 22 Apr 1922 * * * * * * * * * * 38 1st Regiment, 2d Brigade NOTE: This unit was organized at Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic, by redesignation from the 3d Regiment, 2d Brigade. Col Charles C. Carpenter 1 Aug 1922 - 23 Jan 1923 LtCol Edward P. Manwaring 24 Jan 1923 - 5 Feb 1923 Col Charles C. Carpenter 6 Feb 1923 - 18 Jul 1923 LtCol Charles T. Westcott 19 Jul 1923 - 31 Aug 1923 Col Charles C. Carpenter 1 Sep 1923 - 11 May 1924 Col Harold C. Snyder 12 May 1924 - 1 Jul 1924 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Regiment NOTE: This unit was organized at Marine Barracks, Quantico. LtCol Edward A. Greene 15 Mar 1925 - 23 Mar 1925 Col Charles C. Carpenter 24 Mar 1925 - 30 Apr 1925 LtCol Edward A. Greene 1 May 1925 - 31 Oct 1925 Capt Robert C. Anthony 1 Nov 1925 - 30 Nov 1925 LtCol Edward A. Greene 1 Dec 1925 - 15 Dec 1925 Capt Robert C. Anthony 16 Dec 1925 - 1 Jan 1926 LtCol Edward A. Greene 2 Jan 1926 - 24 Jan 1926 Maj George H. Osterhaut, Jr. 25 Jan 1926 - 30 Apr 1926 Maj Harry W. Weitzel 1 May 1926 - 31 May 1926 LtCol Theodore E. Backstrom 1 Jun 1926 - 17 Aug 1926 Capt Merwin H. Silverthorn 18 Aug 1926 - 30 Aug 1926 Col Randolph C. Berkeley 31 Aug 1926 - 8 May 1927 Capt Merwin H. Silverthorn 9 May 1927 - 15 Jun 1927 Maj William S. Harrison 16 Jun 1927 - 3 Aug 1927 Capt James M. Bain 4 Aug 1927 - 20 Sep 1927 Maj William S. Harrison 21 Sep 1927 - 13 Nov 1927 Col Randolph C. Berkeley 14 Nov 1927 - 28 Dec 1927 Maj William S. Harrison 29 Dec 1927 - 20 Feb 1928 Maj Maurice E. Shearer 21 Feb 1928 - 7 Mar 1928 Col Randolph C. Berkeley 8 Mar 1928 - 24 May 1928 Capt Emmett W. Skinner 25 May 1928 - 21 Jun 1928 2dLt Lenard B. Cresswell 22 Jun 1928 - 30 Jun 1928 Capt Howard N. Stent 1 Jul 1928 - 15 Aug 1928 LtCol James T. Buttrick 16 Aug 1928 - 24 Jun 1929 Maj Nedom A. Eastman 25 Jun 1929 - 8 Aug 1929 Maj Marion B. Humphrey 9 Aug 1929 - 19 Aug 1929 Capt Samuel A. Woods, Jr. 20 Aug 1929 - 29 Aug 1929 Maj Marion B. Humphrey 30 Aug 1929 - 10 Sep 1929 Maj Nedom A. Eastman 11 Sep 1929 - 16 Sep 1929 LtCol Charles F. Williams 17 Sep 1929 - 30 Jun 1930 LtCol Andrew B. Drum 1 Jul 1930 - 9 Jul 1930 39 1st Marines NOTE: The regiment was redesignated by authority Article 5-41<4> Marine Corps Manual. LtCol Andrew B. Drum 10 Jul 1930 - 31 Aug 1930 Capt Arthur Kingston 1 Sep 1930 - 21 Sep 1930 Capt Thomas F. Joyce 22 Sep 1930 - 23 Oct 1930 LtCol Andrew B. Drum 24 Oct 1930 - 13 Nov 1930 Maj Arthur Kingston 14 Nov 1930 - 26 Apr 1931 LtCol Edward W. Sturdevant 27 Apr 1931 - 9 Aug 1931 Maj Philip H. Torrey 10 Aug 1931 - 26 Aug 1931 Maj John Q. Adams 27 Aug 1931 - 1 Nov 1931 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force NOTE: This unit was organized at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Col David L. S. Brewster 1 Mar 1941 - 1 Apr 1941 LtCol James F. Moriarty 2 Apr 1941 - 28 May 1941 Capt George H. Brockway 29 May 1941 - 11 Jun 1941 LtCol James F. Moriarty 12 Jun 1941 - 30 Jun 1941 1st Marines, Fleet Marine Force LtCol James F. Moriarty 1 Jul 1941 - 22 Mar 1942 LtCol Julian N. Frisbie 23 Mar 1942 - 3 May 1942 *Col Clifton B. Cates 4 May 1942 - 9 Feb 1943 Col William J. Whaling 10 Feb 1943 - 28 Feb 1944 Col Lewis B. Puller 1 Mar 1944 - 3 Nov 1944 LtCol Richard P. Ross, Jr. 4 Nov 1944 - 12 Dec 1944 Col Kenneth B. Chappell 13 Dec 1944 - 5 May 1945 Col Arthur T. Mason 6 May 1945 - 19 Sep 1946 LtCol James M. Ranck, Jr. 20 Sep 1946 - 7 Oct 1946 Col John E. Curry 8 Oct 1946 - 19 May 1947 NOTE: Effective 20 May 1947, the regiment was reorganized into two battalions with no regimental headquarters. 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division FMF, Western Pacific LtCol John A. Burns Col John E. Curry 20 May 1947 - 26 Aug 1947 20 May 1947 - 26 Aug 1947 Maj Robert T. Knox Col George W. McHenry 27 Aug 1947 - 31 Oct 1947 27 Aug 1941 - 31 Oct 1947 40 1st Marines, Fleet Marine Force NOTE: The regiment was reorganized by redesignation of the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, FMF, Western Pacific, 31 Oct 1947. Col George W. McHenry 1 Nov 1947 - 17 Feb 1948 Maj Edwin H. Wheeler 18 Feb 1948 - 8 Mar 1948 Col George W. McHenry 9 Mar 1948 - 27 Apr 1948 Col Miles S. Newton 28 Apr 1948 - 14 Jun 1948 LtCol Harold Granger 15 Jun 1948 - 26 Jun 1948 Col Miles S. Newton 27 Jun 1948 - 24 Feb 1949 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division Col Miles S. Newton 25 Feb 1949 - 13 Apr 1949 LtCol Thomas W. Brundage, Jr. 14 Apr 1949 - 12 Jun 1949 Col John A. White 13 Jun 1949 - 30 Sep 1949 * * * * * * * * * * 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division NOTE: The regiment was reactivated by redesignation from the 2d Marines, 2d Marine Division, 4 Aug 1950. Col Lewis B. Puller 5 Aug 1950 - 24 Jan 1951 Col Francis M. McAlister 25 Jan 1951 - 18 May 1951 Col Wilburt S. Brown 19 May 1951 - 17 Jul 1951 Col Thomas A. Wornham 18 Jul 1951 - 11 Oct 1951 Col Sidney S. Wade 12 Oct 1951 - 7 Apr 1952 Col Walter N. Flournoy 8 Apr 1952 - 24 Jul 1952 Col Walter P. Layer 25 Jul 1952 - 20 Nov 1952 Col Hewitt D. Adams 21 Nov 1952 - 30 Apr 1953 Col Wallace N. Nelson 1 May 1953 - 10 Oct 1953 Col Ormond R. Simpson 11 Oct 1953 - 15 Feb 1954 Col William K. Jones 16 Feb 1954 - 9 Jul 1954 Col Wilmer E. Barnes 10 Jul 1954 - 24 Jan 1955 Col Nelson K. Brown 25 Jan 1955 - 30 Sep 1955 Col Robert C. McGlashan 1 Oct 1955 - 1 May 1956 Col Edward W. Durant, Jr. 2 May 1956 - 1 Feb 1957 Col William A. Kengla 2 Feb 1957 - 11 Nov 1957 Col Charles L. Banks 12 Nov 1957 - 5 Jan 1959 Col Clarence R. Schwenke 6 Jan 1959 - 4 Jan 1960 Col Anthony Walker 5 Jan 1960 - 14 Nov 1960 Col Charles T. Hodges 15 Nov 1960 - 14 Nov 1961 Col Thomas T. Grady 15 Nov 1961 - 27 May 1962 Col Sidney J. Altman 28 May 1962 - 15 Feb 1963 Col Donald M. Beck 16 Feb 1963 - 10 Jun 1963 Col Harold Wallace 11 Jun 1963 - 30 Sep 1963 Col Angus M. Fraser 1 Oct 1963 - 20 Apr 1964 Col Carl W. Hoffman 21 Apr 1964 - 28 Jun 1965 Col Bryon B. Mitchell 29 Jun 1965 - Sep 1966 Col Donald L. Mallory Sep 1966 - 28 Jan 1967 41 Col Emil J. Radics 29 Jan 1967 - 13 Jul 1967 Col Herbert E. Ing 14 Jul 1967 - (*) Denotes those Commanding Officers of the 1st Marines later to become Commandant or the Marine Corps. 42 Appendix B 1ST MARINES MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS Sgt Harry Harvey 16 Feb 1900 Benictican, P.I. Cpl Edwin N. Appleton 20 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China Pvt James Burns 20 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China Pvt Albert R. Campbell 21 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China Pvt Charles R. Francis 21 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China Pvt Thomas W. Kates 21 Jun 1900 Tientsin, China Sgt John M. Adams 13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China Cpl Harry C. Adriance 13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China Pvt James Cooney 13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China Sgt Alexander J. Foley 13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China Pvt Clarence E. Mathias 13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China Sgt Clarence E. Sutton 13 Jul 1900 Tientsin, China Drum John A. Murphy 21 Jul - Peking, China 14 Aug 1900 Pvt Daniel J. Daly 14 Aug 1900 Peking, China Capt Hiram I. Bearss 17 Nov 1901 Samar, P. I. Capt David D. Porter 17 Nov 1901 Samar, P. I. Maj Smedley D. Butler 17 Nov 1915 Fort Riviere, Haiti Pvt Samuel Gross 17 Nov 1915 Fort Riviere, Haiti Sgt Ross L. Iams 17 Nov 1915 Fort Riviere, Haiti Capt Everett P. Pope 19-20 Sep 1944 Peleliu, Palaus I. Pfc William A. Foster 2 May 1945 Okinawa Sgt Elbert L. Kinser 4 May 1945 Okinawa Cpl John P. Fardy 7 May 1945 Okinawa Pvt Dale M. Hansen 7 May 1945 Okinawa Cpl Louis J. Hauge, Jr. 14 May 1945 Okinawa Pfc Walter C. Monegan, Jr. 17 Sep 1950 Korea Pfc Stanley R. Christianson 29 Sep 1950 Korea 1stLt Henry A. Commiskey 29 Sep 1950 Korea Pfc William B. Baugh 29 Nov 1950 Korea Maj Reginald Meyers 29 Nov 1950 Korea Capt Carl L. Sitter 29-30 Nov 1950 Korea TSgt Harold E. Wilson 23-24 Apr 1951 Korea Cpl Charles G. Abrell 10 Jun 1951 Korea Pfc Edward Gomez 14 Sep 1951 Korea Cpl Joseph Vittori 15-16 Sep 1951 Korea 43 Appendix C HONORS OF 1ST MARINES PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION WITH ONE SILVER STAR Solomon Islands 7 Aug 1942 - 9 Dec 1942 Palau Islands 15 Sep 1942 - 29 Sep 1944 Okinawa 1 Apr 1945 - 21 Jun 1945 Korea 15 Sep 1950 - 11 Oct 1950 Korea 27 Nov 1950 - 11 Dec 1950 Korea 21 Apr 1951 - 26 Apr 1951 16 May 1951 - 30 Jun 1951 11 Sep 1951 - 25 Sep 1951 NAVY UNIT COMMENDATION Korea 11 Aug 1952 - 5 May 1953 7 Jul 1953 - 27 Jul 1953 Vietnam 8 Dec 1965 - 20 Dec 1965 EXPEDITIONARY STREAMER WITH THREE BRONZE STARS Philippine Islands 17 Sep 1911 - 18 Nov 1911 Cuba 28 May 1912 - 5 Aug 1912 Haiti 7 Dec 1915 - 1 Jul 1916 Dominican Republic 5 Dec 1916 - 31 Dec 1916 Cuba 21 Oct 1962 - 23 Oct 1962 PHILIPPINE CAMPAIGN STREAMER 21 Apr 1899 - 4 Jul 1902 NICARAGUAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER 4 Sep 1912 - 22 Nov 1912 MEXICAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER 22 Apr 1914 - 23 Apr 1914 HAITIAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER 17 Aug 1915 - 6 Dec 1915 DOMINICAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER 1 Jul 1916 - 4 Dec 1916 VICTORY STREAMER WORLD WAR I United States 1917 - 1918 44 AMERICAN DEFENSE SERVICE STREAMER 1941 ASIATIC-PACIFIC CAMPAIGN STREAMER WITH ONE SILVER STAR AND ONE BRONZE STAR Guadalcanal Operation Guadacanal-Tulagi Landings 7 Aug 1942 - 9 Aug 1942 Capture and Defense of Guadalcanal 10 Aug 1942 - 22 Dec 1942 Eastern New Guinea Operation Finschhafen Occupation 1 Sep 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 Bismarck Archipelago Operation Cape Gloucester, New Britain 26 Dec 1943 - 1 Mar 1944 Western Caroline Islands Operation Capture and Occupation of 15 Sep 1944 - 2 Oct 1944 Southern Palau Islands Okinawa Gunto Operation Assault and Occupation or 1 Apr 1945 - 30 Jun 1945 Okinawa Gunto VICTORY STREAMER WORLD WAR II 7 Dec 1941 -31 Dec 1946 NAVY OCCUPATION SERVICE STREAMER WITH ASIA CLASP 2 Sep 1945 - 26 Sep 1945 CHINA SERVICE STREAMER 30 Sep 1945 - 15 Apr 1946 NATIONAL DEFENSE SERVICE STREAMER 27 Jun 1950 - 27 Jul 1954 KOREAN SERVICE STREAMER WITH TWO SILVER STARS North Korean Aggression 15 Sep 1950 - 2 Nov 1950 Inchon Landing 15 Sep 1950 - 17 Sep 1950 Communist China Aggression 3 Nov 1950 - 24 Jan 1951 First United Nations Counter 25 Jan 1951 - 21 Apr 1951 Offensive 45 Communist China Spring Offensive 22 Apr 1951 - 8 Jul 1951 United Nations Summer-Fall 9 Jul 1951 - 27 Nov 1951 Offensive Second Korean Winter 28 Nov 1951 - 30 Apr 1952 Korean Defense, Summer-Fall, 1 May 1952 - 30 Nov 1952 1952 Third Korean Winter 1 Dec 1952 - 30 Apr 1953 Korea, Summer-Fall, 1953 1 May 1953 - 27 Jul 1953 KOREAN PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION Korea 15 Sep 1950 - 27 Sep 1950 Korea 26 Oct 1950 - 27 Jul 1953 ARMED FORCES EXPEDITIONARY STREAMER Cuba 24 Oct 1962 - 27 Jul 1953 VIETNAM SERVICE STREAMER WITH 3 BRONZE STARS Vietnam Defense Campaign 25 Aug 1965 - 24 Dec 1965 Vietnamese Counter-offensive Campaign 25 Dec 1965 - 30 June 1966 No Name Established 1 Jul 1966 - date to be announced 46
These items and much more can be found at The Marine Corps Research Center (MCRC)
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